Table 1

Participants’ characteristics by incident heart failure in UK Biobank*

Characteristics at baselineIncident heart failure
NoYesTotal
Baseline visitN=417 632N=10 455N=428 087
Age (years)55.8 (8.0)61.4 (6.4)55.9 (8.1)
Men182 116 (43.6%)6196 (59.3%)188 312 (44.0%)
England370 390 (88.7%)9845 (94.2%)380 235 (88.8%)
European395 222 (94.6%)9955 (95.2%)405 177 (94.6%)
Higher education269 783 (64.6%)7079 (67.7%)276 862 (64.7%)
Most deprived82 826 (19.9%)2684 (25.7%)85 510 (20.0%)
Current smoker42 349 (10.1%)1670 (16.0%)44 019 (10.3%)
Regular/daily drinker293 908 (70.4%)6874 (65.7%)300 782 (70.3%)
Low physical activity72 643 (17.4%)1973 (18.9%)74 616 (17.4%)
BMI (kg/m2)27.2 (4.6)29.4 (5.6)27.2 (4.7)
Waist circumference (cm)89.4 (13.0)97.4 (14.5)89.6 (13.1)
Waist-to-hip ratio0.9 (0.1)0.9 (0.1)0.9 (0.1)
BIA-body fat mass (kg)24.5 (9.3)27.7 (11.3)24.5 (9.4)
BIA-body fat-free mass (kg)52.8 (11.4)56.8 (12.0)52.9 (11.4)
Hypertension99 287 (23.8%)4880 (46.7%)104 167 (24.3%)
Diabetes17 162 (4.1%)1344 (12.9%)18 506 (4.3%)
Chronic kidney disease2298 (0.6%)161 (1.5%)2459 (0.6%)
BP lowering medication usage67 234 (16.1%)3818 (36.5%)71 052 (16.6%)
Insulin usage3190 (0.8%)341 (3.3%)3531 (0.8%)
Lipid-lowering medication usage49 506 (11.9%)2674 (25.6%)52 180 (12.2%)
Systolic BP (mm Hg)137.5 (18.5)146.2 (19.4)137.7 (18.6)
Diastolic BP (mm Hg)82.4 (10.1)84.3 (10.5)82.4 (10.1)
Glucose (mmol/L)5.1 (1.1)5.5 (1.9)5.1 (1.2)
HbA1c (mmol/mol)35.7 (6.1)38.7 (10.0)35.8 (6.3)
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.5 (0.4)1.4 (0.4)1.5 (0.4)
LDL-C (mmol/L)3.6 (0.8)3.5 (0.9)3.6 (0.8)
eGFR (mL/min)90.5 (15.3)79.9 (17.7)90.3 (15.4)
C reactive protein (mg/L)†2.8 (0.7)2.7 (0.8)2.8 (0.7)†
DXA imaging visit‡
 DXA-body fat mass (kg)25.5 (9.3)27.9 (10.7)25.5 (9.3)
 DXA-visceral fat (kg)1.2 (0.9)1.7 (1.2)1.2 (0.9)
 DXA-subcutaneous adipose tissue (kg)5.3 (2.0)5.3 (2.1)5.3 (2.0)
 DXA-fat-free mass (kg)49.7 (10.1)53.8 (10.7)49.8 (10.1)
  • *Data are presented as arithmetic mean (SD), geometric mean (SD) or n (%).

  • †Geometric mean (SD).

  • ‡Imaging visit occurred 10 years after the baseline visit.

  • BIA, bioelectrical impedance analysis; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; DXA, dual X-ray absprtiometry; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL-C, High density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol.