Table 4

Subgroup analysis: linear mixed model analysis of differences in risk assessment parameters before and after treatment changes

VariableWithin-individual comparison before and after treatment escalation
Follow-up risk parametersEstimateCIP value
Pharmacological PH drugs, n=7
 Heart rate variability, ms8.386.11 to 10.64<0.0001*
 Heart rate at nighttime, bpm−1.04−1.76 to 0.320.0049*
 Physical activity, minutes−9.8−15.99 to 2.610.0061*
 Physical activity indexed by daytime heart rate−0.07−0.15 to 0.0040.062
 NT-proBNP, doubling−0.022−0.49 to 0.450.93
 6MWD, metres10.67−13.85 to 34.850.40
 WHO FC0.057−0.35 to 0.510.80
BLTX, n=4
 Heart rate variability, ms38.7435.62 to 41.84<0.0001*
 Heart rate at nighttime, bpm−9.21−10.07 to −8.35<0.0001*
 Physical activity, minutes52.5646.12 to 59.03<0.0001*
 Physical activity indexed by daytime heart rate0.520.45 to 0.59<0.0001*
 NT-proBNP, doubling−1.78−2.24 to −1.19<0.0001*
 6MWD, metres139.9292.54 to 187.29<0.0001*
 WHO FC−1.78−2.24 to −1.19<0.0001*
PBA, n=3
 Heart rate variability, ms20.4316.90 to 23.88<0.0001*
 Heart rate at nighttime, bpm−8.21−9.27 to 7.04<0.0001*
 Physical activity, minutes36.5930.23 to 43.28<0.0001*
 Physical activity indexed by daytime heart rate0.460.40 to 0.53<0.0001*
 NT-proBNP, doubling−2.15−3.27 to 1.04<0.0001*
 6MWD, metres161.8741.17 to 258.870.0009*
 WHO FC1.32−1.98 to −0.670.0005*
  • Comparisons of changes in three treatment subgroups before and after treatment escalation. Comparisons of the ILR and ESC/ESR risk assessment parameters were made using a linear mixed model; estimates of the linear regression model’s classification are shown. All associations were adjusted for age.

  • BLTX, bilateral lung transplantation; BPM, beats per minute; HR, heart rate; 6MWD, 6-minute walking distance; NT-proBNP, N-terminal brain natriuretic in pmol/l; PBA, percutaneous balloon angioplasty; WHO FC, WHO functional classification.