Table 1

Baseline characteristics, categorised by sex

CharacteristicsWomen (n=179)Men (n=238)P value
Age (years)67.4 (59.3–73.3)63.5 (57.0–69.0)<0.001
Total history of AF (years)2.6 (0.8–5.3)2.7 (0.7–5.0)0.838
Heart failure47 (26.2)78 (32.8)0.161
HFrEF3 (1.8)7 (2.9)0.526
HFpEF44 (24.6)70 (29.4)0.318
Hypertension145 (81.0)193 (81.1)1.000
Diabetes mellitus19 (10.7)15 (6.3)0.147
Coronary artery disease11 (6.1)37 (15.5)0.003
Atherosclerosis*78 (43.6)126 (52.9)0.061
Number of comorbidities†2 (2–4)2 (2–3)0.951
CHA2DS2-VASc score‡
 <267 (37.4)162 (68.1)<0.001
 ≥2112 (62.6)76 (31.9)<0.001
 Median3 (2–4)2 (1–3)<0.001
EHRA class0.002
 I14 (7.8)29 (12.2)
 IIa43 (24.0)92 (38.7)
 IIb86 (48.0)81 (34.0)
 III34 (19.0)36 (15.1)
 IV2 (1.2)0 (0)
Physical examination
 Height (cm)168 (163–172)183 (178–187)<0.001
 Weight (kg)77 (68–89)90 (80–101)<0.001
 BMI (kg/m2)27 (24–31)27 (24–30)0.391
 Obesity (BMI >30)57 (32.2)50 (21.1)0.013
 Waist circumference (cm)97 (86–105)102 (97–111)<0.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)135 (127–145)131 (124–143)0.089
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)80 (73–85)80 (74–85)0.474
Laboratory results
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)80 (67–89)81 (70–90)0.199
ECG
 PR interval162 (147–179)172 (153–188)0.002
Medications
 Beta-blocker87 (48.9)126 (52.9)0.429
 Verapamil/diltiazem40 (22.5)33 (13.9)0.027
 Digoxin4 (2.2)2 (0.8)0.409
 Antiarrhythmic drugs class I43 (24.1)51 (21.4)0.555
 Antiarrhythmic drugs class III8 (4.5)11 (4.6)1.000
 ACE inhibitor31 (17.4)51 (21.4)0.321
 Angiotensin receptor blocker37 (20.7)43 (18.1)0.531
 Statin57 (32.0)88 (37.0)0.300
 Diuretic33 (18.5)31 (13.0)0.134
 Anticoagulant139 (78.1)150 (63.0)0.001
 Vitamin K antagonist31 (17.4)24 (10.1)0.040
 NOAC108 (60.8)126 (53.0)0.136
Echocardiographic variables
 Left atrial volume index (mL/m2)29 (23–36)30 (24–36)0.709
 Left atrial reservoir function (%)35 (27–41)38 (30–46)0.007
 Left atrial contractile function (%)16 (12–20)17 (13–23)0.021
 Left atrial conduction function (%)18 (13–24)20 (15–25)0.090
 Right atrial volume indexed (mL/m2)22 (17–28)27 (21–33)<0.001
 Left ventricular ejection fraction (%)50±851±80.225
CT
 Calcium score (Agatston)18 (0–146)52 (0–370)0.002
 Agatston >40024 (13.4)62 (26.0)0.001
 Pericardial fat144 (94–191)199 (146–248)<0.001
 Epicardial fat89 (61–121)105 (83–133)<0.001
Vascular assessment
 IMT max: CCA >1 mm50 (30.9)78 (39.0)0.122
 IMT max: all segments >1 mm67 (41.6)107 (53.5)0.026
 Plaques58 (50.0)82 (52.6)0.714
  • Data are presented as mean±SD, number of patients (%) or median (IQR).

  • *Atherosclerosis is the presence of history of myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft, ischaemic cerebral infarction, peripheral vascular disease, Agatston score >400 or plaque.

  • †The number of comorbidities was calculated by awarding points for hypertension, heart failure, age >65 years, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, BMI >25 kg/m2, moderate or severe mitral valve regurgitation, and kidney dysfunction (eGFR <60).

  • ‡The CHA2DS2-VASc score assesses thromboembolic risk. This includes congestive heart failure/left ventricular dysfunction (C); hypertension (H); age ≥75 years (A2); diabetes (D); stroke/transient ischaemic attack/systemic embolism (S2); vascular disease (V); age 65–74 years (A); and sex category (female sex) (Sc).

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; BMI, body mass index; CCA, common carotid artery; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; EHRA, European Heart Rhythm Association class for symptoms; HFpEF, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; HFrEF, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; IMT, intima media thickness; NOAC, novel oral anticoagulation; NT-proBNP, N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide.