Table 2

Differences in clinical characteristics between women and men with and without AF progression

CharacteristicsAF progressionNo AF progressionP valueAF progressionNo AF progressionP value
Women (n=15)Women (n=164)Men (n=36)Men (n=202)
Age (years)70.5 (64.5–74.2)67.0 (58.8–72.9)0.16563.4 (58.8–70.3)63.6 (56.8–68.9)0.451
Total history of AF (years)3.6 (2.4–4.5)2.4 (0.8–5.4)0.3832.7 (0.7–5.1)2.7 (0.7–5.0)0.783
Heart failure3 (37.5)44 (46.8)0.72318 (66.7)60 (50.0)0.138
 HFrEF0 (0.0)3 (1.9)1.0004 (11.8)3 (1.6)0.013
 HFpEF3 (37.5)41 (43.2)1.00013 (50.0)57 (47.5)0.832
Hypertension14 (93.3)131 (79.9)0.30932 (88.9)161 (79.7)0.251
Diabetes mellitus2 (13.3)17 (10.4)0.6653 (8.3)12 (5.9)0.707
Coronary artery disease1 (6.7)10 (6.1)1.00010 (27.8)27 (13.4)0.043
Atherosclerosis*5 (33.3)73 (44.5)0.58821 (58.3)105 (52.0)0.587
Number of comorbidities†2 (2–3)2 (2–4)0.9873 (2–4)2 (2–3)0.012
CHA2DS2-VASc score‡3 (3–4)3 (2–4)0.8062 (2–3)2 (1–3)0.008
 <24 (26.7)63 (38.4)0.53419 (52.8)143 (70.8)0.450
 ≥211 (73.3)101 (61.6)0.53417 (47.2)59 (29.1)0.052
EHRA class0.0560.193
 I4 (26.7)10 (6.1)7 (19.4)22 (10.9)
 IIa4 (26.7)39 (23.8)17 (47.2)75 (37.1)
 IIb4 (26.7)82 (50)8 (22.2)73 (36.1)
 III3 (19.9)31 (19.5)4 (11.2)32 (15.9)
 IV0 (0)2 (0.6)0 (0)0 (0)
Physical examination0.0590.193
 Height (cm)168±8168±70.873182±8183±70.331
 Weight (kg)72 (64–94)78 (68–88)0.78091 (83–103)90 (80–100)0.669
 BMI (kg/m2)28 (22–33)27 (24–31)0.83027 (25–31)27 (24–29)0.471
 Obesity (BMI >30)5 (33.3)52 (31.7)0.77110 (27.8)40 (19.8)0.276
Waist circumference (cm)102 (94–110)96 (86–105)0.234105 (101–115)102 (96–110)0.022
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)130 (130–142)136 (127–145)0.675130 (120–140)132 (125–144)0.318
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)75 (70–86)80 (74–84)0.30980 (73–84)80 (74–86)0.302
Laboratory results
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)75 (63–79)81 (68–89)0.12274 (68–86)83 (71–90)0.037
ECG
 PR interval175 (146–209)161 (147–178)0.171179 (165–194)168 (152–188)0.033
Medications
 Beta-blocker10 (66.7)77 (47.0)0.18222 (61.1)104 (51.5)0.365
 Verapamil/diltiazem2 (13.3)38 (23.2)0.5265 (13.9)28 (13.9)1.000
 Digoxin1 (6.7)3 (1.8)0.2991 (2.8)1 (0.5)0.280
 Antiarrhythmic drugs class I4 (26.7)39 (23.8)0.7601 (2.8)50 (24.8)0.002
 Antiarrhythmic drugs class III0 (0)8 (4.9)1.0004 (11.1)7 (3.5)0.067
 ACE inhibitor0 (0)31 (18.9)0.07711 (30.6)40 (19.8)0.184
 Angiotensin receptor blocker6 (40)31 (18.9)0.0898 (22.2)35 (17.3)0.484
 Statin6 (40)51 (31.1)0.56520 (55.6)68 (33.7)0.015
 Diuretic3 (20)30 (18.3)1.0007 (19.4)24 (11.8)0.279
 Anticoagulant14 (93.3)125 (76.2)0.19631 (86.1)119 (58.9)0.001
  Vitamin K antagonist5 (33.3)26 (15.9)0.1455 (13.9)19 (9.4)0.378
  NOAC9 (60)99 (60.3)1.00026 (72.2)100 (49.5)0.018
Echocardiographic variables
 Left atrial volume index (mL/m2)28 (23–35)29 (24–36)0.95435 (29–39)29 (23–35)0.012
 Left atrial reservoir function (%)31 (27–35)35 (28–41)0.21131 (26–47)39 (31–46)0.085
 Left atrial contractile function (%)13 (10–15)16 (13–20)0.03613 (11–19)18 (14–23)0.022
 Left atrial conduction function (%)19 (14–23)18 (13–24)0.87518 (13–26)20 (15–24)0.770
 Right atrial volume indexed (mL/m2)25 (18–29)22 (18–27)0.65431 (23–38)27 (21–33)0.028
 Left ventricular ejection fraction (%)51±850±80.57750±951±80.529
 Moderate mitral valve regurgitation0 (0)3 (1.8)1.0003 (8.3)1 (0.5)0.012
CT
 Calcium score (Agatston)21 (0–145)18 (0–130)0.975197 (55–738)26 (0–280)<0.001
 Agatston >4002 (13.3)22 (13.4)1.00013 (36.1)49 (24.6)0.155
 Pericardial fat153 (120–186)143 (94–191)0.933214 (150–263)195 (144–247)0.454
 Epicardial fat92 (63–114)89 (61–122)0.536109 (85–144)103 (83–132)0.262
Vascular assessment
 IMT max: CCA >1 mm5 (41.7)45 (30.0)0.51714 (48.3)64 (37.4)0.306
 IMT max: all segments >1 mm5 (41.7)62 (41.6)1.00015 (51.7)92 (53.9)0.843
 Plaques4 (80)54 (48.7)0.36411 (55.0)71 (52.2)1.000
  • Data are presented as mean±SD, number of patients (%) or median (IQR).

  • *Atherosclerosis is the presence of history of myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft, ischaemic cerebral infarction, peripheral vascular disease, Agatston score >400 or plaque.

  • †The number of comorbidities was calculated by awarding points for hypertension, heart failure, age >65 years, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, BMI >25 kg/m2, moderate or severe mitral valve regurgitation, and kidney dysfunction (eGFR <60).

  • ‡The CHA2DS2-VASc score assesses thromboembolic risk. This includes congestive heart failure/left ventricular dysfunction (C); hypertension (H); age ≥75 years (A2); diabetes (D); stroke/transient ischaemic attack/systemic embolism (S2); vascular disease (V); age 65–74 years (A); and sex category (female sex) (Sc).

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; BMI, body mass index; CCA, common carotid artery; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; EHRA, European Heart Rhythm Association class of symptoms; HFpEF, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; HFrEF, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; IMT, intima media thickness; NOAC, novel oral anticoagulation.