Table 2

Baseline echocardiographic characteristics of study population, stratified by TR severity

Echocardiographic dataNo or mild TR
Moderate TR
Severe TR
P value
LVDd (mm)48.6±6.048.6±6.343.0±6.1<0.001
LVSd (mm)31.8±5.132.0±7.229.5±6.20.088
LVEF (%)62.8±7.559.8±8.757.0±8.7<0.001
LA dimension (mm)49.5±7.153.2±8.153.6±6.2<0.001
LAV index (mL/m2)60.2±25.268.2±31.466.7±26.80.053
Peak gradient (mm Hg)17.9±6.919.5±7.316.7±9.50.193
Mean gradient (mm Hg)9.8±4.810.7±4.98.7±5.50.215
Mitral valve area (cm2)*1.2±0.41.1±0.30.99±0.40.017
Leaflets displacement (mm)14.8±2.713.8±3.012.8±2.90.001
Cn (mL/mm Hg)5.2±1.94.5±1.65.1±1.60.031
Mitral regurgitationAbsent71 (13)6 (11)1 (4)0.028
Mild447 (80)40 (73)26 (93)
Moderate42 (8)7 (13)1 (4)
Severe2 (0.4)2 (4)0
RV function parameters
RV basal diameter (mm)38.2±5.243.3±6.852.3±10.4<0.001
Impaired RV contractility†118 (21)31 (57)25 (89)<0.001
Systolic annular velocity (cm/s)‡10.6±2.19.8±2.58.4±1.8<0.001
Tricuspid annular diameter (mm)31.9±6.137.8±5.444.8±9.8<0.001
Tricuspid annular index (mm/m2)18.6±3.522.2±4.127.6±5.0<0.001
Tricuspid annular motion (mm)18.2±4.215.7±3.114.6±3.7<0.001
RV end-diastolic area (cm2)17.2±3.819.7±5.727.9±12.0<0.001
RV end-systolic area (cm2)9.1±3.011.7±5.516.0±7.6<0.001
RV fractional area change (%)47.5±10.142.6±13.443.7±8.60.004
RV myocardial performance index0.34±0.170.42±0.200.35±0.120.014
RA area (cm2)16.0±4.821.6±5.931.1±13.2<0.001
SPAP (mm Hg)41.7±15.556.4±24.143.4±15.5<0.001
Estimated RA pressure (mm Hg)4.5±3.76.8±4.613.6±3.1<0.001
  • Data are expressed as the mean value±SD or absolute numbers (percentage).

  • *Mitral valve area by planimetry.

  • †RV contractility was assessed qualitatively by multiple views.

  • ‡Peak systolic velocity at the tricuspid annulus.

  • Cn, net atrioventricular compliance; LA, left atrium; LAV, left atrial volume; LVDd, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVSd, left ventricular end-systolic diameter; MR, mitral regurgitation; RA, right atrium; RV, right ventricular; SPAP, systolic pulmonary artery pressure; TR, tricuspid regurgitation.