Table 1

Baseline characteristics

CharacteristicEbstein’s anomaly (n=81)Other ROPAC (n=5658)P value
Age, mean (SD), years29.7 (6.1)29.5 (5.6)0.350
LMIC17 (21.0)2264 (40.0)<0.001
Nulliparity38 (46.9)2535 (44.8)0.724
Current smoking1 (1.2)227 (4.0)0.247
Underlying cardiac pathological features
 Associated cardiac defects
  Atrial septal defect12 (14.8)278 (5.1)<0.001
  Bicuspid aortic valve3 (3.7)538 (9.5)0.076
  Persistent ductus arteriosus2 (2.5)147 (2.6)0.942
  Ventricular septal defect1 (1.2)715 (12.6)0.002
 Prior interventions/surgery39 (48.1)3121 (55.2)0.195
 Tricuspid valve intervention15 (18.5)33 (0.6)<0.001
Prepregnancy cardiac status
 Chronic hypertension7 (8.6)373 (6.6)0.491
 Diabetes mellitus2 (2.5)88 (1.6)0.521
 History of heart failure5 (6.2)591 (10.4)0.208
 Cyanosis4 (4.9)59 (1.0)<0.001
 Atrial fibrillation/flutter3 (3.7)103 (1.8)0.211
 NYHA class
  I55 (67.9)4152 (73.4)0.268
  II21 (25.9)1170 (20.7)0.248
  III1 (1.2)175 (3.1)0.335
  IV0 (0)28 (0.5)0.526
  Unknown4 (4.9)133 (2.4)0.130
Prepregnancy cardiac medication
 Antiplatelet therapy4 (4.9)230 (4.1)0.693
 Vitamin K antagonists3 (3.7)393 (6.9)0.253
 LMWH3 (3.7)26 (0.5)<0.001
 DOAC0 (0)3 (0.1)0.836
 Beta blockers4 (4.9)559 (9.9)0.138
 Antiarrhythmic drugs2 (2.5)98 (1.7)0.615
 Diuretics1 (1.2)216 (3.8)0.226
 Angiotensin receptor blocker1 (1.2)24 (0.4)0.271
 ACE inhibitors0 (0)157 (2.8)0.128
 Aldosterone antagonists0 (0)32 (0.6)0.497
 Calcium channel blocker0 (0)50 (0.9)0.395
 Nitrates0 (0)9 (0.2)0.719
 Statins0 (0)31 (0.5)0.504
  • Data in n (%) unless otherwise specified. Bold values denote statistical significance at the p<0.05 level.

  • DOAC, direct oral anticoagulants; LMIC, low-income and middle-income country; LMWH, low-molecular-weight heparin; NYHA, New York Heart Association functional classification; ROPAC, Registry Of Pregnancy And Cardiac disease.