Table 1

Characteristics of the study population

ParameterSurvivors (n=59)Non-survivors (n=115)Total (n=174)P value
Basic and clinical data
 Male sex, n (%)32 (54)81 (70)113 (65)0.034
 Age, years62 (53; 68)63 (56; 70)63 (55; 69)0.369
 Hight, cm171(165; 183)176 (168; 181)175 (166; 182)0.344
 Weight, kg78 (65; 86)77 (66; 84)77 (66; 85)0.963
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg110 (105; 125)110 (110; 120)110 (110; 120)0.030
 Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg75 (70; 80)70 (65; 80)70 (65; 80)0.080
 NYHA-FC>II, n (%)26 (44)76 (66)102 (59)0.005
Clinical chemistry
 Light chain type Lambda, n (%)53 (90)96 (83)149 (86)0.258
 dFLC, mg/L274 (141; 415)325 (155; 711)300 (152; 589)0.033
 NT-proBNP, ng/L4528 (2472; 8482)7516 (5046; 13 419)6894 (3333; 11 119)<0.001
 hsTnT, pg/mL57 (40; 89)86 (48; 138)71 (43; 126)0.010
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m281 (72;93)74 (62;93)77 (64;93)0.036
ECG
 Sinus rhythm, n (%)56 (100)115 (100)174 (100)
 Heart rate, s-178 (69; 90)82 (74; 91)81 (71; 90)0.452
 Heart axis0.871
  Normal heart axis, n (%)22 (37)39 (34)61 (35)
  Left axis deviation, n (%)26 (44)55 (48)81 (47)
  Right axis deviation, n (%)11 (19)20 (18)31 (18)
 PQ interval, ms186 (166; 216)178 (158; 208)180 (160; 210)0.348
 QRS interval, ms96 (88; 112)100 (90; 112)98 (90; 112)0.792
 QTc interval, ms441 (421; 457)437 (419; 456)439 (419; 456)0.656
 Low-QRS-voltage pattern, n (%)20 (34)53 (47)73 (42)0.101
Echocardiogram
 LV-Septum, mm17 (15; 20)17 (15; 20)17 (15; 20)0.377
 LV-posterior wall, mm16 (13; 17)15 (13; 18)15 (13; 18)0.694
 LV-EDD, mm41 (38; 44)41 (38; 46)41 (38; 45)0.697
 LV-ESD, mm31 (27; 34)31 (28; 37)31 (27; 35)0.329
 LV-mass/BSA, g/m²143 (119; 164)150 (124; 182)147 (124; 180)0.388
 LV-EDV, mL75 (57; 90)78 (60; 96)77 (60; 94)0.146
 LV-ESV, mL36 (25; 46)39 (32; 54)38 (29; 50)0.075
 Ejection fraction, %51 (44; 56)49 (41; 55)49 (43; 55)0.120
 MAPSE, mm9 (7; 11)8 (7; 10)9 (7; 10)0.138
 TAPSE, mm15(12; 20)15 (11; 19)15 (11; 19)0.419
 LV-GLS, %−9.1 (−12; −7.1)−8.1(−10; −6.4)−8.4 (−10; −6.5)0.013
 RV-GLS, %−15 (−20; −12)−15 (−17; −10)−15 (−19; −11)0.201
 Relative apical sparing, n (%)23 (39)52 (45)75 (43)0.432
 LA-volume/BSA, mL/m²44 (34; 55)45 (32; 53)44 (33; 54)0.896
 E-wave/A-wave2.3 (1; 3.2)2.6 (1.5; 3.4)2.5 (1.4; 3.3)0.191
 E-wave/e‘-wave16 (12; 20)18 (13; 22)17 (13; 22)0.017
 E-wave deceleration time, ms158 (142; 206)167 (135; 196)164 (137; 206)0.992
 sPAP, mm Hg40 (32; 46)39 (32; 46)39 (32; 46)0.602
 Pericardial effusion, n (%)12 (20)40 (35)52 (30)0.049
  • Results are given as number (percentage) or median (25th; 75th percentile).

  • BSA, body surface area; dFLC, difference of free light chains; EDD, end-diastolic diameter; EDV, end-diastolic volume; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; ESD, end-systolic diameter; ESV, end-systolic volume; GLS, global longitudinal strain; hsTnT, high sensitivity troponin T; LV, left ventricle; MAPSE, mitral annular plane systolic excursion; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; NYHA-FC, New York Heart Association functional class; RV, right ventricle; sPAP, systolic pulmonary artery pressure; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.