Table 3

Changes in echocardiographic parameters in male and female athletes from baseline to first follow-up, first to second follow-up and baseline to second follow-up

Baseline to first follow-up (12–15 years old)First to second follow-up (15–18 years old)Baseline to second follow-up (12–18 years old)
LA volume/BSA, ΔmL/m²3.8±8.0*4.9±5.76.6±10.2*1.6±7.211.1±9.0*6.1±5.4
IVSd, Δmm0.4±1.2−0.6±1.4†1.2±1.2*1.1±1.91.6±1.7−0.2±1.5†
LVIDd, Δmm9.0±4.9*6.5±3.0*3.3±4.7*2.6±1.513.1±5.7*8.3±4.4*
LVPWd, Δmm1.1±1.4*−0.2±1.4†1.1±1.1*1.4±1.02.0±1.80.3±1.2†
LVIDd/BSA, Δmm/m²0.9±0.3*0.9±0.2*−0.2±0.2*−0.0±0.10.7±0.30.8±0.3
LV EDV, ΔmL42±23*15±25*†13±16*1±1257±20*25±11*†
LV EDV/BSA, ΔmL/m²4.6±12.4*−5.4±14.2†−2.6±9.6−4.4±6.32.3±9.7−3.9±4.5†
LV ESV, ΔmL19±12*12±9*†1±10−3±618±13*10±6*
LV ESV/BSA, ΔmL/ m²2.8±6.6*1.2±4.5−4.8±5.1*−3.6±2.7−2.0±6.3−1.8±3.8
LVM, Δg55±36*18±30†49±33*35±23*107±51*35±32*†
LVM/BSA, Δg/m²14±21*−2±20†16±16*17±1333±27*4±19†
RV EDA/BSA, Δcm²/m²−2.6±2.7*−3.0±2.9*−0.3±2.4−1.1±1.2−1.7±3.4*−2.9±3.2*
RV ESA/BSA, Δcm²/m²−1.1±2.0−1.6±1.4−0.7±1.31.1±0.8−0.9±1.9*−1.7±2.2*
  • Observed values expressed as mean±SD. P values are calculated using linear mixed model regression analysis.

  • *Significant increase between follow-ups, p≤0.01.

  • †Significant difference between male and female group, p≤0.01.

  • BSA, body surface area; EDA, end-diastolic area; EDV, end-diastolic volume; ESA, end-systolic area; ESV, end-systolic volume; IVSd, interventricular septum thickness in end-diastole; LA, left atrium; LV, left ventricle; LVIDd, left ventricular internal diameter in end-diastole; LVM, left ventricular mass; LVPWd, left ventricular posterior wall thickness in end-diastole; RV, right ventricle.