Table 2

Cardiac morphology and function in male and female adolescent athletes at baseline, first and second follow-up

Baseline 12 years oldFirst follow-up 15 years oldSecond follow-up 18 years old
MaleFemaleMaleFemaleMaleFemale
(n=48)(n=28)(n=34)(n=14)(n=23)(n=11)
LA volume/BSA, mL/m²28.4±6.425.2±4.832.5±7.329.4±6.739.6±8.429.1±4.2*
IVSd, mm7.8±0.97.9±0.88.3±1.07.3±1.0*9.5±1.38.0±1.1*
LVPWd, mm7.2±1.07.2±0.78.1±1.17.1±1.2*9.4±1.37.8±0.6*
LVIDd, mm42±0.340±0.351±0.447±0.3*55±0.548±0.5*
LVIDd/BSA, mm/m²2.1±0.31.9±0.33.0±0.22.9±0.22.8±0.22.7±0.2
LV EDV, mL106±14103±15147±29118±13*166±26124±17*
LV EDV/BSA, mL/m²81±776±7*86±1272±6*85±970±6*
LV ESV, mL45±743±763±1351±7*64±1650±8*
LV ESV/BSA, mL/m²34±432±4*37±731±4*32±629±3
LVM, g92±1887±13147±36106±24*204±50126±25*
LVM/BSA, g/m²70±1365±985±1665±14*103±2272±13*
RV EDA, cm²17.2±2.816.8±2.723.5±4.518.8±3.1*26.8±4.420.3±2.5*
RV EDA/BSA, cm²/m²15.3±3.113.6±2.2*13.7±2.311.5±1.7*13.6±2.111.6±1.1*
RV ESA, cm²10.7±2.09.9±1.614.3±2.911.5±10.3*15.3±2.511.7±2.0*
RV ESA/BSA, cm²/m²8.9±1.97.8±1.4*8.3±1.57.0±1.1*7.8±1.16.6±1.0*
RWT0.35±0.050.36±0.050.32±0.040.31±0.050.34±0.060.33±0.03
Z-scores
 IVSd, Z-score1.4±1.01.4±0.81.0±0.80.2±0.8*1.7±1.00.7±1.1*
 LVPWd, Z-score0.8±0.90.9±0.71.0±0.80.2±1.1*1.7±1.10.6±0.6*
 LVIDd, Z-score−0.4±0.9−0.9±0.80.4±0.8−0.4±0.7*0.7±0.9−0.4±0.9*
 LV EDV, Z-score1.2±0.50.7±0.7*1.1±0.80.1±0.5*0.7±0.6−0.1±0.5*
 LVM, Z-score1.5±1.40.9±1.12.6±1.50.6±1.3*3.9±1.91.2±1.5*
LV systolic function
 LV EF, %58±358±457±357±262±560±3
 LV GLS, %22.9±2.121.8±1.5*22.4±1.921.7±2.420.7±1.620.6±1.3
LV diastolic function
 Mitral E velocity, cm/s0.95±0.120.96±0.110.98±0.171.00±0.120.86±0.140.86±0.10
 Mitral A velocity, cm/s0.46±0.120.47±0.100.44±0.100.43±0.070.41±0.080.43±0.11
 Mitral E/A ratio2.2±0.52.1±0.42.3±0.62.4±0.72.1±0.52.1±0.7
 E/e′ ratio7.0±1.37.0±1.17.1±1.57.1±1.56.0±0.96.2±0.9
  • Observed values are expressed as mean±SD. P values at baseline are calculated using the Student’s t-test. P values for follow-ups are calculated by linear mixed model regression analysis. Z-scores are calculated by parameterz.com calculator, and values are number of standard deviations above estimated mean for the given BSA, -2-2 is normal range.

  • *Significant difference between male and female group, p≤0.01.

  • BSA, body surface area; EDA, end-diastolic area; EDV, end-diastolic volume; EF, ejection fraction; ESA, end-systolic area; ESV, end-systolic volume; GLS, global longitudinal strain; IVSd, interventricular septum thickness in end-diastole; LA, left atrium; LV, left ventricle; LVIDd, left ventricular internal diameter in end-diastole; LVM, left ventricular mass; LVPWd, left ventricular posterior wall thickness in end-diastole; RV, right ventricular; RWT, relative wall thickness.