Table 1

Basic characteristics in male and female athletes at baseline, first and second follow-up

Baseline 12 years oldFirst follow-up 15 years oldSecond follow-up 18 years old
Age, years12.1±0.212.1±0.215.3±0.315.2±0.218.4±0.318.3±0.2
Height, cm151±7154±7174±10170±9184±8171±7*
Weight, kg40±542±659±956±774±865±10*
BSA, m²1.3±0.11.4±0.11.7±0.21.6±0.12.0±0.11.8±0.1*
BMI, kg/m²17.4±1.517.6±1.719.4±1.719.4±1.921.6±1.622.1±3.1
Resting HR, bpm71±1272±1161±964±1054±958±8
Exercise, hour/wk7.1±2.56.9±2.110.0±3.79.0±4.111.9±4.311.1±3.6
Endurance exercise hour/wkNANA5.7±3.54.9±2.68.0±5.16.6±3.0
Cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters
 VO2 max mL/min2545±3362583±3303704±6262931±388*4906±6953399±416*
 VO2 max indexed, mL/min/kg65.1±6.357.9±4.9*64.2±5.752.4±6.0*67.1±6.752.9±5.0*
  • Observed values expressed as mean±SD. P values for baseline values are calculated using the Student's t-test. P values for follow-ups by linear mixed model regression analysis.

  • *Significant difference between male and female group, p≤0.01.

  • BMI, body mass index; bpm, beats per minute; BSA, body surface area; HR, heart rate; NA, not available; RER, peak respiratory exchange ratio; VO2 max, maximal oxygen uptake per minute.