Table 4

Comparison of echocardiographic follow-up data in accordance with cluster assignment

Cluster 1
(n=111)
Cluster 2
(n=43)
Cluster 3
(n=32)
Cluster 4
(n=61)
P value
LVEF, mean±SD (95% CI), %56.6±6.17
(55.4 to 57.7) (3,4)
55.6±7.78
(53.2 to 58.0) (3,4)
43.7±13.7
(38.8 to 48.7) (1,2,4)
50.4±10.4
(47.7 to 53.0) (1,2,3)
5.2×10–9
sPAP, mean±SD (95% CI), mmHg35.6±10.1
(33.4 to 37.7) (1,2,4)
44.1±14.4
(39.2 to 49.0) (1,3)
59.4±16.8
(53.1 to 65.8) (1,2,4)
46.4±13.3
(42.7–50.0) (1,3)
1.6×10–11
Right midventricular diameter, mean±SD (95% CI), mm28.4±4.44
(27.5 to 29.4) (4)
29.2±4.70
(27.5 to 30.8)
31.9±7.23
(28.9 to 34.9)
32.0±7.44
(29.9 to 34.0) (1)
0.0054
TAPSE, mean±SD (95% CI), mm21.6±4.91
(20.6 to 22.5) (3,4)
21.3±4.61
(19.9 to 22.8) (3,4)
15.9±4.47
(14.3 to 17.5) (1,2)
17.6±4.25
(16.5 to 18.7) (1,2)
1.0×10–9
LA area, mean±SD (95% CI), cm222.1±6.67
(20.8 to 23.4) (2,3,4)
27.0±5.84
(25.2 to 28.8) (1,4)
29.9±6.90
(27.4 to 32.4) (1)
31.2±7.68
(29.2 to 33.2) (1,2)
1.1×10–12
RA area, mean±SD (95% CI), cm216.8±5.08
(15.8 to 17.8) (2,3,4)
20.1±5.11
(18.5 to 21.8) (1,3,4)
26.4±7.02
(23.8 to 28.9) (1,2)
25.6±9.71
(23.0 to 28.1) (1,2)
8.0×10–15
MR≥III/IV°, n (%)1 (0.901%) (3)0 (0%) (3)6 (18.8%) (1,2,4)2 (3.28%) (3)0.0002
TR≥III/IV°, n (%)3 (2.70%) (3,4)3 (6.98%) (3)10 (31.2%) (1,2)9 (14.8%) (1)3.4×10–5
  • Kruskal-Wallis test in combination with pairwise Wilcoxon test with correction for multiple testing (Benjamini-Hochberg method) was used for comparisons among clusters. Numbers in parentheses indicate between which clusters significant differences (p value ≤0.05) were detected.

  • LA area, left atrial area; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MR, mitral regurgitation; RA area, right atrial area; sPAP, systolic pulmonary artery pressure; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; TR, tricuspid regurgitation.