Table 4

Association between female sex and the log-transformed volume of brain lesions

VolumeUnivariableAge adjusted modelMultivariable adjusted model
Multiplicative effect (95% CI)Multiplicative effect (95% CI)Multiplicative effect (95% CI)
Large noncortical and cortical infarcts0.96 (0.61 to 1.53) p=0.880.96 (0.60 to 1.53) p=0.861.13 (0.64 to 1.98), p=0.67
Small noncortical infarcts0.98 (0.75 to 1.29) p=0.890.98 (0.75 to 1.29) p=0.891.20 (0.89 to 1.62), p=0.24
Ischaemic lesions (LNCCI and SNCI)0.87 (0.59 to 1.29), p=0.500.88 (0.59 to 1.30), p=0.511.18 (0.76 to 1.85), p=0.46
White matter hyperintensities, total1.32 (1.15 to 1.53) p<0.0011.14 (1.01 to 1.30) p=0.041.17 (1.01 to 1.35), p=0.04
  • Data are presented as multiplicative effect and 95% CI; multiplicative effect=e β-coefficient (due to log-transformed outcome variable); Only patients with the respective lesion were taken into account for this analysis; predictor of interest: female sex; multivariable adjusted model was adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking status, AF type (paroxysmal vs non-paroxysmal), systolic blood pressure, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, coronary heart disease, sleep apnoea, statin therapy, antihypertensive medication, oral anticoagulation, antiplatelet therapy and normalised brain volume. Missing values multivariable adjusted models: LNCCI n=3; SNCI n=2; ischaemic lesions n=4; WMH n=16. Number of patients in the multivariable adjusted model (including brain volume): LNCCI: n=333; SNCI: n=350; ischaemic lesions: n=569; white matter lesions: n=1491.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; LNCCI, large noncortical and cortical infarcts (including acute lesions); SNCI, small noncortical infarcts (including acute lesions).