Table 1

Baseline characteristics stratified by sex

VariableWomen (n=478)Men (n=1265)P Value
Age (years)74±872±9<0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)26.7 (23.5, 31.2)26.9 (24.6, 30.1)0.35
Blood pressure systolic/diastolic (mm Hg)138±21/78±12134±18/79±12<0.001/0.08
 Smoking status, n (%)<0.001
 Current39 (8.2)92 (7.3)
 Past163 (34.1)680 (53.8)
Never276 (57.7)491 (38.9)
Average alcohol intake (drinks/day)0.1 (0.0, 0.6)0.7 (0.2, 1.6)<0.001
Regular weekly physical activity, n (%)229 (47.9)617 (48.9)0.77
Health Perception Score (0–100) *70±1774±17<0.001
Atrial fibrillation type, n (%)<0.001
 Paroxysmal258 (54.0)540 (42.7)
 Persistent140 (29.3)406 (32.2)
 Permanent80 (16.7)319 (25.1)
CHA2DS2-VASc score4.0±1.53.1±1.7<0.001
History of diabetes, n (%)57 (11.9)220 (17.5)0.01
History of hypertension, n (%)327 (68.4)879 (69.5)0.71
History of heart failure, n (%)92 (19.3)287 (22.7)0.15
History of coronary artery disease, n (%)60 (12.6)405 (32.0)<0.001
History of clinical stroke, n (%)70 (14.6)160 (12.6)0.31
History of TIA, n (%)50 (10.5)110 (8.7)0.27
History of major bleeding, n (%)28 (5.9)69 (5.5)0.83
History of sleep apnoea, n (%)40 (8.4)195 (15.4)<0.001
History of renal failure, n (%)81 (17.0)236 (18.7)0.48
History/current hormonal therapy, n (%)29 (6.1)0 (0.0)
Cardiovascular medication, n (%)
 Antihypertensive medication433 (90.6)1100 (87.0)0.05
 Statins169 (35.4)662 (52.3)<0.001
 Antiarrhythmics class Ic and III108 (22.6)256 (20.2)0.29
Oral anticoagulant intake, n (%)432 (90.4)1139 (90.0)0.90
NOAC276 (63.9)659 (57.9)0.04
Vitamin K antagonist156 (36.1)479 (42.1)0.05
Antiplatelet (including aspirin), n (%)57 (11.9)250 (19.8)<0.001
  • Values are mean ± SD, median (interquartile range) or n (%). The p value compares women and male patients. CHA2DS2-VASc score was defined as follows: female sex = 1 point; age ≥65 and <75 years = 1 point; age ≥75 years = 2 points, history of stroke or TIA = 2 points; history of heart failure = 1 point; hypertension = 1 point; diabetes = 1 point; vascular disease, consisting of history of myocardial infarction, history of percutaneous coronary intervention, history of coronary artery bypass graft surgery or periphery artery disease = 1 point.

  • *Health perception score is a self-assessment concerning their current state of health, evaluated in a scale from 0 to 100. Missing values: blood pressure systolic (n=11), diastolic (n=11), smoking (n=2), alcohol consumption (n=2), physical activity (n=2), CHA2DS2-VASc (n=2), heart failure (n=2), TIA (n=1), sleeping apnoea (n=1), renal failure (n=1). Antihypertensive medication includes angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers, angiotensin-1-receptor-blockers, calcium antagonists, diuretics, renin antagonists, aldosterone antagonists.

  • NOAC, new oral anticoagulants; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.