Table 2

Statistical significant predictors for postoperative AF, in meta-analyses of RCTs

Author, yearPredictorExposed/unexposed as included in MAkn/NMetricES (95% CI)PPI include null valueI2 %SSEESBLS signHigh RoBGLEAMSTAR 2 quality
Ruan 2020Atrial pacingAtrial pacing or not21511/2002OR0.57 (0.43 to 0.76)0.0002Yes35.04NoYesNo≤25%HighHigh
Ruan 2020Bi-atrial pacingBi-atrial pacing or not10235/1014OR0.44 (0.26 to 0.76)0.002Yes57.55NoYesNo≤25%HighHigh
Hu 2016Posterior pericardiotomyPosterior pericardiotomy or not10329/1648OR0.36 (0.23 to 0.56)0.0000Yes56.36NoYesYes≤25%HighHigh
Liu 2019DexmedetomidineDexmedetomidine use or not13335/1684OR0.70 (0.49 to 0.98)0.037Yes29.82NoNoNo>25%ModerateHigh
Guerra 2017RanolazineRanolazine use or not3176/700OR0.30 (0.13 to 0.69)0.004Yes66.00NoNoYes>25%ModerateHigh
Patti 2015Statin pre-treatmentStatin pre-treatment or not11303/1106OR0.41 (0.32 to 0.53)0.000Yes0.00NoNPYes≤25%ModerateHigh
Putzu 2016Perioperative statin therapyPerioperative statin therapy or not191255/4737OR0.53 (0.35 to 0.81)0.003Yes90.90NoYesYes>25%ModerateHigh
Guo 2014PUFAs alone and in combination therapy with vitC+vitEPUFAs alone and in combination therapy with vitC+vitE or not11956/3137OR0.61 (0.44 to 0.86)0.005Yes68.84YesYesNo>25%ModerateModerate
Guo 2014EPA/DHA ratio1:2EPA/DHA ratio1:2 or 1:211956/3137OR0.61 (0.44 to 0.86)0.005Yes68.84YesYesNo>25%ModerateModerate
Gillespie 2005AmiodaroneAmiodarone or not15762/2941OR0.5 (0.42 to 0.60)0.0000No0.00NoNPYes≤25%ModerateModerate
DiNicolantonio 2014Carvedilol useCarvedilol or metoprolol use4135/497OR0.50 (0.28 to 0.90)0.020Yes45.88NoNoNo≤25%ModerateHigh
Li 2015LandiololLandiolol use or not9217/807RR0.40 (0.30 to 0.53)0.0000No20.15YesYesYes>25%ModerateHigh
 Ho 2009HydrocortisoneHydrocortisone use or not18455/1509RR0.74 (0.63 to 0.86)0.0002No0.00NoNoYes>25%ModerateHigh
Geng 2017Perioperative antioxidant therapyPerioperative antioxidant therapy use or not11464/1544RR0.55 (0.42 to 0.72)0.0000Yes54.44YesYesYes>25%ModerateHigh
Lennerz 2017ColchicineColchicine use or not5354/1744RR0.66 (0.52 to 0.85)0.001Yes24.68NoNoNo>25%ModerateModerate
Liu 2014Prophylactic NAC useProphylactic NAC use or not10253/1026OR0.56 (0.38 to 0.83)0.004Yes14.06NoNoNo≤25%ModerateCritically low
Langlois 2017PUFAPUFA supplementation or not171074/3614OR0.67 (0.49 to 0.90)0.008Yes62.14NoYesNo>25%ModerateHigh
Liu 2014Low dose glucocrorticoidsLow dose glucocrorticoids use or not5285/843RR0.71 (0.55 to 0.92)0.008Yes31.82NoNoYes>25%ModerateHigh
Liu 2015Medium dose glucocrorticoidsMedium dose glucocrorticoids use or not191915/5968RR0.76 (0.60 to 0.96)0.020Yes49.57YesYesNo>25%ModerateHigh
Liu 2015GlucorticoidsGlucorticoids use or not272255/7019RR0.77 (0.66 to 0.90)0.001Yes40.08YesYesNo>25%ModerateHigh
Khan 2020TAVR in patients with aortic stenosis with low riskTAVR or SAVR3563/2633OR0.13 (0.09 to 0.18)0.0000Yes48.84NoNoYes>25%ModerateHigh
Khan 2020TAVR in patients with aortic stenosis with intermediate riskTAVR or SAVR2812/3692OR0.23 (0.16 to 0.33)0.0000NP76.17NPNoYes>25%ModerateHigh
Khan 2020TAVR in patients with low and intermediate riskTAVR or SAVR41375/6325OR0.17 (0.12 to 0.24)0.0000No82.84YesNoYes>25%ModerateHigh
Chatterjee 2013Oral amiodaroneOral amiodarone or not8472/1906RR0.58 (0.47 to 0.72)0.0000No36.28NoNoYes≤25%LowLow
Chatterjee 2013IV amiodaroneIV amiodarone or not15598/2044RR0.57 (0.43 to 0.75)0.0001Yes68.26YesYesYes≤25%LowLow
Chatterjee 2013Preoperative amiodaronePreoperative amiodarone or not11585/2231RR0.55 (0.46 to 0.64)0.0000No18.49NoNoYes≤25%LowLow
Chatterjee 2013Peri/postoperative amiodarone pPeri/postoperative amiodarone or not12482/1717RR0.55 (0.38 to 0.80)0.001Yes57.85YesYesYes≤25%LowLow
Miller 2005MagnesiumMagnesium administration or not20577/2490OR0.53 (0.38 to 0.74)0.0002Yes59.67YesYesNo>25%LowCritically low
Wiesbauer 2007B-blockersB-blockers use or not261019/3959OR0.38 (0.29 to 0.49)0.0000No45.04YesYesYes>25%LowCritically low
Violi 2014AntioxidantsAntioxidants use or not15481/1738RR0.58 (0.45 to 0.76)0.0001Yes54.39YesYesNo>25%LowCritically low
  • AF, atrial fibrillation; CE, class of evidence; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; ES, effect size; ESB, excess significance bias; GLE, GRADE level of evidence; GRADE, Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation; I2, heterogeneity; K, number of studies for each factor; LS, largest study with significant effect; n, number of cases; N, total number of cohort per factor; NA, not assessable; NAC, N-acetylcysteine; NP, not pertinent, because the number of observed studies is less than the expected; NR, not reported; OSAS, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; PI, prediction interval; PUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids; RCT, randomised controlled trial; RoB, risk of bias; RR, risk ratio; SAVR, surgical aorta valve replacement; SSE, small study effects; TAVR, transcatheter aorta valve replacement; vit, vitamin.