Table 3

Summary of associations with high epidemiological credibility of risk and protective factors with the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation

Level of credibilityAssociations
Meta-analyses including Observational studies
ConvincingTransfemoral transcatheter AVR
High suggestivePreoperative hypertension, high neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio
Grade level of evidence
Meta-analyses including RCTs
HighAtrial pacing, biatrial pacing, posterior pericardiotomy
MediumDexmedetomidine, glucocorticoids (general, low, medium doses), hydrocortisone, ranolazine, statin (pre-treatment and perioperative), antioxidant, PUFAs (alone or in combinations with Vitamin C and E), amiodarone, colchicine, TAVR compared with SAVR, landiolol, carvedilol, prophylactic NAC use
  • AVR, aortic valve replacement; NAC, N-acetylcysteine; PUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids; RCT, randomised controlled trial; SAVR, surgical aorta valve replacement; TAVR, transcatheter aorta valve replacement.