Table 1

Predictors for postoperative AF, in meta-analyses of observational studies

Author, yearPredictorExposed/unexposed as included in MAkn/NMetricES (95% CI)PPI include null valueI2SSEESBLS signCECES2 (n>1000)AMSTAR 2 quality
Angsubhakorn 2020Non-transfemoral transcatheter AVRTransfemoral transcatheter AVR or non-transfemoral AVR71262/5681RR2.95 (2.43 to 3.58)8.2×10–28No40.62NoNoYesIICritically low
Liu 2020Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratioHigh or low neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio121330/9262OR1.39 (1.26 to 1.53)1.9×10–11No95.15NoYesYesIIIIHigh
Zhou 2017Preoperative hypertensionPreoperative hypertension or normotension2592658/130087RR1.07 (1.0.5 to 1.09)9.1×10–15No54.88NoYesYesIIIIModerate
Litton 2012Preoperative BNP/NT-proBNPHigh BNP/NT-proBNP or low BNP/NT-proBNP4530/1115OR2.89 (1.04 to 8.04)0.041Yes91.23NoNoYesIVIVCritically low
Phan 2016ObesityObese or not3216608/86984OR1.21 (1.06 to 1.38)0.006Yes89.36NoYesNoIVIVHigh
Liu 2018Blood transfusionBlood transfusion or not87491/31069OR1.55 (1.08 to 2.21)0.016Yes97.09NoYesYesIVIVHigh
Qaddoura 2014OSASOSAS or not7264/700OR1.84 (1.14 to 2.96)0.012Yes51.69NoNoYesIVIVModerate
Sun 2020RAASiRAASi use in TAVR or not2280/1532RR0.73 (0.59 to 0.91)0.004NP0.45NPNoYesIVIVModerate
Chen 2020CHA2DS2-VASC SCORECHA2DS2-VASc≥2 or CHA2DS2-VASc<28NA/NAOR1.46 (1.25 to 1.72)3.2×10–6Yes0.000YesNAYesIVIIIModerate
Athanasiou 2004Off-pump elderlyOff-pump or not8809/3017OR0.70 (0.51 to 0.95)0.022Yes49.07NoNPYesIVIVCritically low
Guan 2020Off-pumpOn- or off-pump CABG136431/31039OR0.94 (0.79 to 1.12)0.515Yes0.073NoNPNoNSNSHigh
Yousuf Salmasi 2020Mini sternotomyMini-sternotomy or right anterior thoracotomy5616/2234OR0.67 (0.25 to 1.78)0.425Yes91.00NoNoNoNSNSModerate
Chen 2019RAASiRAASi use in cardiac surgery or not117018/27885OR1.06 (0.93 to 1.2)0.368Yes67.29YesNPYesNSNSHigh
  • CHADS VASc: congestive heart failure, hypertension, age >75 years, diabetes, stroke, vascular disease, age >65, female sex.

  • OSAS: obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; AF, atrial fibrillation; AVR, aortic valve replacement; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; CE, class of evidence; CES, class of evidence sensitivity analysis; ES, effect size; ESB, excess significance bias; I2, heterogeneity; K, number of studies for each factor; LS, largest study with significant effect; n, number of cases; N, total number of cohorts per factor; NA, not assessable; NP, not pertinent, because the number of observed studies is less than the expected; NR, not reported; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro B-natriuretic peptide; PI, prediction interval; RCT, randomised controlled trial; RR, risk ratio; SSE, small study effects.