Table 2

Association between risk factors and self-report of cardiac-related PASC symptoms

Risk factorsCardiac-related PASC at enrolment
OR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)
Pre-existing CV risk factors/CVD*
 No underlying CV risk factors/CVD (ref.)1.001.00
 Presence of underlying CV risk factors/CVD2.18 (1.44 to 3.31)2.01 (1.27 to 3.17)
Pre-existing conditions†
 No pre-existing conditions (ref.)1.001.00
 Pre-existing conditions2.17 (1.48 to 3.20)2.00 (1.28 to 3.10)
Age (per year)1.02 (1.01 to 1.03)1.02 (1.01 to 1.03)
COVID-19 hospitalisation
 Not hospitalised for COVID-19 (ref.)1.001.00
 Hospitalised for COVID-193.69 (1.96 to 6.97)3.03 (1.58 to 5.83)
  • Crude and adjusted ORs and 95% CI were estimated using multivariable logistic regression models.

  • Stepwise, final model: income, race, education, days since positive test. Bold indicates statistically significant values, p< 0.05.

  • *CV risk factors included hypertension and dyslipidaemia; CVD included coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, chronic ischaemic heart diseases, myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, etc.

  • †Pre-existing conditions prior to COVID-19 infection (cardiovascular diseases, asthma, cancer, kidney disease, irritable bowel syndrome, etc).

  • aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CV, cardiovascular; CVD, cardiovascular disease; PASC, postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection; ref., reference group.