Table 7

Differences in echocardiographic findings and levels of cytokines in different biological valves

Median (max–min)
Biological prosthesis INCImported biological prosthesisP value
Echocardiographic findings
 LVEF (%)60 (24–65)54 (49–61)0.25
 LV mass (gr/m2/BSA)91.12±13*90.5±35**0.96†
 Peak velocity (m/s)3 (2.2–3.7)2.8 (1.3–3.0)0.30
 Mean gradient (mm Hg)25 (10–44)21 (12–72)0.85
 EOA (cm2)1.4 (0.4–2.1)1.4 (0.7–1.7)0.78
 TAPSE (mm)18 (16–20)18 (15–19)0.62
 PSAP (mm Hg)41 (22–67)29 (23–37)0.11
Cytokine levels
 Endothelin 1 (pg/mL)0.90 (0.08–6.5)3.0 (0.15–13.6)0.10
 IL-1ß (pg/cm3)3 (3–649.9)3 (3–3)0.39
 IL-4 (pg/mL)30 (30–30)30 (30–30)NS
 IL-6 (pg/mL)10 (10–10)10 (10–10)NS
 RANK (pg/mL)50 (50–1288.9)50 (50–50)0.39
 RANK-L (pg/mL)50 (50–50)50 (50–50)NS
 TNFα (pg/mL)15 (15–388.7)15 (15–15)0.56
 Osteopontin (pg/mL)3358.9±1254.8*3737±1749.6*0.68†
 Osteoprogesterin (pg/mL)2011.6±902.1*2296.5±857.8*0.64†
  • *Mean(±SD), Mann-Whitney U test.

  • †Student’s t-test.

  • BSA, body surface area; EOA, effective orifice area; IL, interleukin; LV, left ventricle; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NCI, National Institute of Cardiology; NS, not significant; PSAP, pulmonary systolic artery pressure; RANK, receptor activator of nuclear-factor kappa B; RANK-L, receptor activator of nuclear-factor kappa B ligand; Statistical test, †Student’s t-test.; Statistical test, Mann–-Whitney U test.; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; TNFα, tumour necrosis factor alpha.