Table 2

Patients’ characteristics for all cases (AKI, RVF and c-AKI) and all corresponding controls

CharacteristicCasesControlsP value*
Baseline characteristics, mean (SD)
 Male sex, n (%)58 (68)56 (66)0.87
 Age, mean (SD)67.9 (10.6)66.0 (10.1)0.15
 BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)30.3 (6.0)28.7 (5.5)0.08
 Baseline creatinine (µmol/L), mean (SD)96.1 (39.0)84.4 (23.7)0.01
Postinduction haemodynamic variables, mean (SD)
 Central venous pressure (mm Hg)15.8 (4.5)14.0 (4.7)0.01
 Pulmonary artery pressure (mm Hg)31.3 (9.0)27.8 (8.1)0.01
 Pulmonary Artery Pulsatility Index1.4 (0.6)1.4 (0.6)0.91
Biomarkers, mean (SD)
 IGFBP7 (ng/mL)109 (35)93 (31)0.0001
 NT-pro-BNP (pg/mL)1912 (3083)3031 (6308)0.07
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Hypertension64 (75)55 (65)0.37
 Diabetes45 (53)20 (24)0.0001
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease11 (13)10 (12)1.0
 Pre-existing RV dysfunction13 (15)2 (2)0.005
Left ventricular ejection fraction
 ≥50%62 (73)73 (86)0.11
 35%–49%11 (13)8 (9)
 20%–34%11 (13)3 (4)
 <20%1 (1)1 (1)
 Coronary artery disease55 (65)53 (62)0.87
Medications, n (%)
 Acetylsalicylic acid60 (71)51 (60)0.20
 Beta blocker64 (75)56 (66)0.24
 ACE inhibitor50 (59)47 (55)0.76
 Lipid lowering agent63 (74)52 (61)0.10
Type of surgery, n (%)
 CABG25 (29)39 (46)0.01
 Single valve13 (15)22 (26)
 Multiple valves17 (20)11 (13)
 CABG +single valve25 (29)11 (13)
 CABG +multiple valves5 (6)2 (2)
 Mitral or tricuspid valve surgery18 (23)13 (17)0.42
Postoperative characteristics, median (IQR)
 Length of hospital stay (days)14.0 (16.8)8.0 (7.0)<0.0001
 Length of ICU stay (days)2.0 (4.2)1.0 (1.0)<0.0001
 Mechanical ventilation duration (hours)11.3 (18.2)4.8 (5.0)<0.0001
  • *Categorial variables were compared with Fisher’s exact test for variables with two levels, or X2 test for variables with >2 levels. Continuous variables were compared with Student’s t-test if their distribution was normal, and Wilcoxon’s rank-sum test otherwise.

  • AKI, acute kidney injury; BMI, body mass index; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; c-AKI, congestive AKI; ICU, intensive care unit; IGFBP7, insulin like growth factor binding protein 7; NT-pro-BNP, N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide; RV, right ventricle; RVF, right ventricular failure.