Table 1

Diagnostic criteria for primary and secondary outcomes

AKIN criteria:
  1. >50% relative or >26 µmol/L absolute rise in serum creatinine above preoperative value within 48 hours of surgery


  2. New onset dialysis within 48 hours of surgery

  1. Combined clinical and echocardiographic criteria:

    1. Difficult separation from CPB, characterised by:

      1. Concurrent use of ≥1 vasopressor and ≥1 inotrope or ≥1 pulmonary vasodilator (ie, nitric oxide or epoprostenol).

      2. More than one CPB weaning attempt.

      3. Mechanical support device (ie, RV assist device).

    2. >20% relative reduction in RV fractional area change measured by two-dimensional echocardiography.

  1. Haemodynamic criteria:

    1. CVP >18 mm Hg or cardiac index <1.8 L/min/m2, in the absence of elevated left atrial and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure >18 mm Hg, tamponade, ventricular arrhythmias or pneumothorax.

    2. RV stroke work index <4 g·m2/min where RVSWI=0.136 · SVI · (mPAP – RAP)

Meets criteria for AKI and RVF
  • AKI, acute kidney injury; AKIN, acute kidney injury network; c-AKI, congestive AKI; CPB, cardiopulmonary bypass; CVP, central venous pressure; mPAP, mean pulmonary arterial pressure; RAP, right atrial pressure; RV, right ventricle; RVF, right ventricular failure; RVSWI, Right Ventricular Stroke Work Index; SVI, stroke volume index.