Table 2

Baseline characteristics of incident AS and respective controls cohorts according to CKD subgroups in 2000–2001 and 2016–2017

Patient characteristics2000–20012016–2017
Cohort with incident AS
(n=5874)
Cohort without AS
(n=29 370)
Cohort with incident AS
(n=8329)
Cohort without AS
(n=41 645)
DialysisPredialysisNon-CKDDialysisPredialysisNon-CKDP value*DialysisPredialysisNon-CKDDialysisPredialysisNon-CKDP value*
No. of patients (%)
(% change from 2000 to 2001 to 2016–2017)
52
(0.9)
986
(16.8)
4 836
(82.3)
169
(0.6)
2 353
(8.0)
26 848
(91.4)
93
(1.1)
(+22%)
2 418
(29.0)
(+73%)
5 818
(69.9)
(−15%)
95
(0.2)
(−67%)
2 750
(6.6)
(−18%)
38 800
(93.2)(+2%)
Demographics
Age, years (median, IQR)72
(63.5–77.5)†
79
(74–85)‡
76
(67–82)§
76
(72–80)
80
(76–85)
76
(67–84)
0.012076
(67–82)†¶
84
(76–89)‡¶
77
(69–85)§¶
82
(76–85)¶
86
(82–91)¶
79
(70–86)¶
0.1211
Female sex, n (%)25
(48.1)
459
(46.6)
2 623
(54.2)
64
(37.9)
1 173
(49.9)
14 298 (53.3)1.000047
(50.5)†
1 219 (50.4)‡2 923 (50.2)§¶25
(26.3)¶
1 307
(47.5)¶
19 613 (50.6)¶1.0000
No. of comorbidities
(median, IQR)
9
(7–12)
8
(6–11)‡
6
(3–8)§
8
(5–11)
8
(5–10)
1
(0–4)
<0.000111
(7–14)†¶
9
(6–11)‡¶
6
(4–8)§¶
4
(1–9)¶
6
(4–9)¶
1
(0–2)¶
<0.0001
Combined Index of Charlson-Elixhauser Score (median, IQR)4
(2–7.5)
4
(3–6)‡
3
(1–5)§
5
(2–7)
5
(3–8)
0
(0–3)
<0.00016
(3–9)¶
5
(3–8)‡¶
3
(1–5)§¶
2
(0–5)¶
4
(2–7)¶
0
(0–1)¶
<0.0001
Cardiac risk factor, n (%)
Hypertension46
(88.5)†
709
(71.9)
2 805 (58.0)§122 (72.2)1 634
(69.4)
7 207 (26.8)<0.000187
(93.6)†
2 126 (87.9)‡¶4 264 (73.3)§¶61
(64.2)
2 088
(75.9)¶
9 212 (23.7)¶<0.0001
Diabetes23
(44.2)
323
(32.8)‡
1 043 (21.6)§69
(40.8)
888
(37.7)
3 294 (12.3)<0.000164
(68.8)†¶
1 050 (43.4)‡¶1 665 (28.6)§¶41
(43.2)
934
(34.0)¶
4613 (11.9)<0.0001
Obesity<5
(<9.6)
80
(8.1)‡
366
(7.6)§
5
(3.0)
142
(6.0)
456
(1.7)
<0.000115
(16.1)¶
324 (13.4)‡¶661 (11.4)§¶10
(10.5)¶
162
(5.9)¶
425
(1.1)¶
<0.0001
Cardiovascular disease, n (%)
Cerebrovascular disease12
(23.1)
244
(24.8)
906
(18.7)§
49
(29.0)
632
(26.9)
2 445 (9.1)<0.000121
(22.6)†
361 (14.9)‡¶664 (11.4)§¶6
(6.3)¶
354
(12.9)¶
989
(2.6)¶
<0.0001
Congestive heart failure27
(51.9)
585
(59.3)‡
1 497 (31.0)§74
(43.8)
1 206
(51.3)
2 242
(8.4)
<0.000145
(48.4)†
1 310 (54.2)‡¶1 518 (26.1)§¶17
(17.9)¶
722
(26.3)¶
1 006 (2.6)¶<0.0001
Myocardial infarction19
(36.5)
325
(33.0)
1 100 (22.8)§43
(25.4)
722
(30.7)
1 518
(5.7)
<0.000141
(44.1)†¶
817
(33.8)‡
1 215 (20.9)§24
(25.6)¶
533
(19.4)¶
905
(2.3)¶
<0.0001
Cardiac arrhythmias26
(50.0)
522
(52.9)‡
2 050 (42.4)§62
(36.7)
952
(40.5)
2 927 (10.9)<0.000156
(60.2)†¶
1 484 (61.4)‡¶2 670 (45.9)§¶32
(33.7)
1 104
(40.2)¶
3 290 (8.5)¶<0.0001
Valvular heart disease, other than AS19
(36.5)†
455
(46.2)‡
1 912 (39.5)§17
(10.1)
301
(12.8)
477
(1.8)
<0.000130
(32.3)†¶
484 (20.0)‡¶1 037 (17.8)§¶6
(6.3)
232
(8.4)¶
396
(1.0)¶
<0.0001
Peripheral vascular disorder25
(48.1)
295
(29.9)
770
(15.9)§
73
(43.2)
665
(28.3)
1 480
(5.5)
<0.000145
(48.4)†
778 (32.2)‡¶1 239 (21.3)§¶25
(26.3)¶
559
(20.3)¶
1 097 (2.8)¶<0.0001
Other conditions, n (%)
Dementia<5
(<9.6)
78
(7.9)‡
237
(4.9)§
18
(10.7)
373
(15.9)
2 386
(8.9)
<0.00017
(7.5)
366 (15.1)‡¶529
(9.1)§¶
<5
(<5.3)
762
(27.7)¶
2 601 (6.7)¶<0.0001
Cancer, with and without metastasis6
(11.5)
122
(12.4)‡
554
(11.5)§
31
(18.3)
562
(23.9)
4 677 (17.4)<0.000118
(19.4)¶
455
(18.8)¶
910
(15.6)§¶
20
(21.1)
522
(19.0)¶
3 937 (10.2)¶<0.0001
  • *Comparison between subjects with AS and without AS globally (including the three subgroups).

  • †Significant difference (p<0.05), AS dialysis versus non-AS dialysis.

  • ‡Significant difference (p<0.05), AS predialysis versus non-AS predialysis.

  • §Significant difference (p<0.05), AS non-CKD versus non-AS non-CKD.

  • ¶Significant difference (p<0.05) for time trend for respective subgroup.

  • AS, aortic stenosis; CKD, chronic kidney disease; No., number.