Table 1

Characteristics of study participants (N=202)

CharacteristicOverall, N=202Male, n=97Female, n=105P value*
Median age (IQR)45 (39–52)46 (41–54)43 (38–52)0.03
Median years on antiretroviral therapy (IQR)6.8 (4.6–8.8)6.6 (4.7–8.8)6.8 (4.3–8.8)0.88
Antiretroviral therapy regimen†, n (%)
NNRTI189 (94.0)91 (94.8)98 (93.3)0.66
PI12 (6.0)5 (5.2)7 (6.7)
Highest level education completed, n (%)
Less than primary school43 (21.3)15 (15.5)28 (26.7)0.14
Primary school58 (28.7)26 (26.8)32 (30.5)
Secondary61 (30.2)34 (35.1)27 (25.7)
Beyond secondary40 (19.8)22 (22.7)18 (17.1)
Current cigarette smoking, n (%)4 (2.0%)4 (4.1%)00.04
Current alcohol use, n (%)34 (16.8)28 (28.9)6 (5.7)<0.001
Sedentary lifestyle, n (%)31 (15.4)18 (18.6)13 (12.4)0.22
Daily add salt to diet, n (%)198 (98.0)93 (95.9)105 (100)0.04
Median body mass index, kg/m2 (IQR)†23.9 (21.0–27.5)22.6 (20.5–26.5)25.2 (22.4–27.9)0.005
Undetectable viral load copies within 12 months prior to baseline visit (<1000 copies/mL)‡, n (%)64 (97.0)30 (93.8)34 (100)0.14
Diabetes, n (%)†8 (4.0)2 (2.1)6 (5.7)0.19
Blood pressure, n (%)
<140/90 mm Hg102 (50.5)50 (51.6)52 (49.5)0.61
140 and/or 90 mm Hg54 (26.7)23 (23.7)31 (29.5)
≥160 and/or ≥100 mm Hg46 (22.8)24 (24.7)22 (21.0)
Taking antihypertensive medication at baseline, n (%)56 (27.7)21 (21.7)35 (33.3)0.06
  • NNRTI: n=160 efavirenz plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and lamivudine and n=29 nevirapine with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. PI: n=12 atazanavir/ritonavir.

  • *P values determined by χ2 and rank-sum tests.

  • †Data missing for one male participant.

  • ‡Out of 66 participants with a viral load recorded.

  • NNRTI, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; PI, protease inhibitor.