Table 3

Characteristics of observational studies comparing early intervention versus conservative management

StudyStudy designStudy populationAge (years)Follow-up periodOutcomesAdjustment methods
Pai et al11Retrospective cohort study33871±157.6 monthsAll-cause mortality.Cox proportional hazards model (variables adjusted for age, MR grade 3 or 4, CKD and aspirin use).
Kang et al12Prospective cohort study10463±1249.3 monthsOperative mortality and cardiovascular death during follow-up.Propensity score-matched analysis.
Le Tourneau et al13Retrospective cohort study69471±11Average more than 60 monthsTo assess the value of STS score in predicting short-term and long-term outcome.Cox proportional hazards model.
Taniguchi et al (CURRENT AS registry)7Retrospective cohort study
(propensity score-matched analysis)
58271.6±8.7 (AVR group)
(watchful waiting group)
45 months (median)All-cause mortality and hospitalisation for heart failure.Propensity score-matched analysis.
Masri et al14Retrospective cohort study53366±1382.8 monthsAll-cause mortality.Cox proportional hazards model (variables adjusted for STS score, age-sex-predicted METs and heart rate recovery).
Bohbot et al15Retrospective cohort study28173±1042 monthsAll-cause mortality and cardiovascular death during follow-up.Cox proportional hazards model (variables adjusted for age, sex, body surface area, hypertension, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, Charlson Comorbidity Index, AVA, peak aortic jet velocity, EF and LV mass).
Campo et al16Retrospective cohort study26568.1±11.7 (AVR group)
73±12.6 (watchful waiting group)
60 monthsAll-cause mortality.Multivariable Cox regression model (variables adjusted for age, renal failure and ejection fraction).
Kim et al17Retrospective cohort study46864.2±1360.9 monthsAll-cause mortality, cardiovascular death and MACE.Time-dependent Cox regression analysis (variables adjusted for age, BMI, anaemia, severe CKD, previous stroke, coronary artery disease, previous malignancy, left atrium diameter, LVMi and tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient).
  • AVR, aortic valve replacement; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CURRENT AS, Contemporary outcomes after Surgery and medical treatment in patients with severe Aortic Stenosis; EF, ejection fraction; LV, left ventricular; LVMi, left ventricular mass indexed; MACE, major adverse cardiac events; METs, metabolic equivalents; MR, mitral regurgitation; STS, Society of Thoracic Surgeons.