Table 1

Baseline characteristics at diagnosis

Characteristicsn=80 (%)
Mean age in years (SD 14.4)39
Male sex (%)52 (65)
Definite infective endocarditis by clinical criteria254 (67.5)
PLHIV22 (27.5)
c-ART17 (77.3)
History of intravenous drug use6 (7.5)
New onset dyspnoea55 (68.9)
Clinical features
 Murmur present75 (93.8)
 Clubbing37 (46.3)
 Haematuria32 (45.7)
 Documented fever25 (31.3)
 Embolic event20 (25)
 Splinter haemorrhages12 (15)
 Splenomegaly6 (7.5)
 Janeway lesions1 (1.3)
 Roth spots1 (1.3)
Clinical grading of regurgitant lesions
 Acute29 (38.7)
 Acute on chronic13 (17.3)
Blood results
 C reactive protein >576 (95)
 Rheumatoid factor >1135 (50.7)
 Haemoglobin <10 g/dL37 (46.3)
 C3 <0.9 g/L25 (33.3)
 C4 <0.1 g/L17 (22.7)
Blood culture results
 BCPIE42 (52.5)
  Staphylococcus aureus18 (22.5)
  Viridans group streptococci10 (12.5)
 BCNIE38 (47.5)
  Bartonella species16 (20)
  No organism or cause identified15 (18.8)
Echocardiography
 Predisposing endocardial abnormality detected38 (47.5)
  Congenital heart disease14 (17.5)
  Rheumatic heart disease12 (15)
  Prosthetic valve disease7 (8.8)
 Regurgitant lesion present
  Acute severe aortic/mitral regurgitation25 (31.3)
  Acute on chronic severe aortic/mitral regurgitation15 (18.8)
  Chronic severe aortic/mitral regurgitation18 (23)
In hospital mortality17 (21.3)
Surgery performed46 (57.5)
  • BCNIE, blood culture positive infective endocarditis; BCPIE, Blood culture positive infective endocarditis; c-ART, combination antiretroviral therapy; PLHIV, People living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.