Table 1

Baseline demographics, risk factors, biochemical and echocardiographic parameters

VariableSummary/categoryTotal (n=87)Survivors (n=36)Non-survivors (n=51)ORP values95% CI: low95% CI: high
Age (years)Mean/SD62.5±14.864±13.761.5±15.61.010.4290.981.04
Median/(Q1–Q3)64 (56–72.5)67.5 (55.3–73)61 (56–70.5)
Minimum–maximum17–9220–8617–92
GenderWomen39 (44.8%)19 (52.8%)20 (39.2%)
Men48 (55.2%)17 (47.2%)31 (60.8%)0.580.2120.241.37
ITU admissionNon-ITU36 (41.4%)6 (16.7%)30 (58.8%)
ITU51 (58.6%)30 (83.3%)21 (41.2%)7.14<0.0012.5320.19
EthnicityWhite26 (29.9%)11 (30.6%)15 (29.4%)
Asian5 (5.7%)3 (8.3%)2 (3.9%)
Others19 (21.8%)8 (22.2%)10 (19.6%)
Black29 (33.3%)10 (27.8%)19 (37.3%)
BAME53 (60.9%)22 (61.1%)31 (60.8%)
Missing8 (9.2%)3 (8.3%)5 (9.8%)
Ethnicity (binary)Caucasians26 (29.9%)11 (30.6%)15 (29.4%)
Non-caucasians53 (60.9%)22 (61.1%)31 (60.8%)0.970.9460.372.50
Missing8 (9.2%)3 (8.3%)5 (9.8%)
BMI (kg/m2)Mean/SD29.8±6.930.8±8.229.2±6.11.030.3390.961.11
Median/(Q1–Q3)28.4 (25.5–32.8)29.4 (26.5–33.7)28.4 (25.2–32.4)
Minimum–maximum17.9–54.719.6–54.717.9–46.2
Missing15 (17.2%)10 (27.8%)5 (9.8%)
ComorbiditiesHypertension
No42 (48.3%)13 (36.1%)29 (56.9%)
Yes45 (51.7%)23 (63.9%)22 (43.1%)2.330.0590.975.61
Diabetes mellitus
No58 (66.7%)24 (66.7%)34 (66.7%)
Yes29 (33.3%)12 (33.3%)17 (33.3%)1.000.9990.402.47
CKD
No68.2% (78.2%)30 (83.3%)41 (80.4%)
Yes19 (21.2%)6 (16.7%)10 (19.6%)0.820.7280.272.50
CAD
No77 (88.5%)31 (86.1%)46 (90.2%)
Yes10 (11.5%)5 (13.9%)5 (9.8%)1.480.5580.405.56
COPD
No81 (93.1%)35 (97.2%)46 (90.2%)
Yes6 (6.9%)1 (2.8%)5 (9.8%)0.260.2320.032.35
AF
N78 (89.7%)33 (91.7%)45 (88.2%)
Yes9 (10.3%)3 (8.3%)6 (11.8%)0.680.6060.162.93
Obesity (BMI >30) kg/m2)
No58 (66.7%)25 (69.4%)33 (64.7%)
Yes29 (33.3%)11 (30.6%)18 (35.3%)1.140.7920.433.03
Echocardiographic variables
LVEF (%)Mean/SD60.7±1062.1±10.859.8±9.51.030.2960.981.08
Median/(Q1–Q3)62.8 (57.5–65)65 (60–67.5)62.5 (57.5–65)
Range (Minimum–maximum)12.5–7512.5–7517.5–68
Missing1 (1.1%)01 (1.9%)
LV size (cm)Mean/SD4.4±0.64.2±0.74.6±0.50.370.0190.160.85
Median/(Q1–Q3)4.5 (4–4.8)4.2 (3.9–4.6)4.6 (4.3–4.9)
Range (Minimum–maximum)2.8–6.22.8–6.23.3–5.7
Missing2 (2.3%)02 (3.9%)
Left atrial size (cm)Mean/SD3.6±0.73.3±0.63.7±0.70.400.0820.141.12
Median/(Q1–Q3)3.6 (3.1–3.9)3.4 (3.1–3.7)3.7 (3.3–4)
Range (Minimum–maximum)1.7–5.61.7–4.52.7–5.6
Missing36 (41.4%)20 (55.6%)16 (31.4%)
RV size (cm)Mean/SD4.0±0.84.0±0.83.9±0.81.530.5310.405.86
Median/(Q1–Q3)4.3 (3.5–4.7)4.3 (4.1–4.8)4.1 (3.5–4.5)
Range (Minimum–maximum)2.4–52.4–52.6–5
Missing71 (81.6%)30 (83.3%)41 (80.4%)
Right atrial area (cm2)Mean/SD16.4±5.714.8±3.417±6.40.920.3610.771.10
Median/(Q1–Q3)14.9 (13–19.3)14.7 (13.1–17)14.9 (13–21.1)
Range (Minimum–maximum)7.7–34.78.8–20.27.7–34.7
Missing59 (67.8%)28 (77.8%)31 (60.8%)
PASP (mm Hg)Mean/SD41.7±13.144.5±14.238.5±11.11.040.1340.991.09
Median/(Q1–Q3)40 (32.1–49.9)42.5 (35.5–52)35.5 (32–44)
Range (Minimum–maximum)21.5–7722.5–7721.5–61
Missing38 (43.7%)11 (30.6%)27 (52.9%)
RV dysfunctionNo64 (73.6%)22 (61.1%)42 (82.4%)
Yes23 (26.4%)14 (38.9%)9 (17.6%)2.970.0301.117.94
Missing000
Elevated PASPNo17 (19.5%)7 (19.4%)10 (19.6%)
Yes32 (36.8%)18 (50.0%)14 (27.5%)1.840.3170.566.05
Missing38 (43.7%)11 (30.6%)27 (52.9%)
Impaired LVEFNo79 (90.8%)33 (91.7%)46 (90.2%)
Yes7 (8.0%)3 (8.3%)4 (7.8%)1.0450.9560.224.99
Missing1 (1.1%)01 (2.0%)
Biomarkers
Troponin (ng/L)Median /(Q1–Q3)58.6 (9.8–97.1)71.2 (17.5–97.6)45.3 (8.9–97.1)1.140.3160.881.47
(log scale used in analysis)Mean/SD268.3±826.9226.7±384.6299.2±1049.5
Range (minimum–maximum)1.1–69584.2–1439.71.1–6958
Missing6 (6.9%)1 (2.8%)5 (9.8%)
Confirmed PENo16 (18.4%)7 (19.4%)9 (17.7%)
Yes4 (4.6%)1 (2.8%)3 (5.9%)0.430.5010.045.06
Missing67 (77%)28 (77.8%)39 (76.5%)
  • Data is presented as mean±SD, median (Q1–Q3) and number (%).

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; BAME, Black and minority ethnic; BMI, body mass index; CAD, coronary artery disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ITU, intensive care unit; LV, left ventricle; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; PASP, pulmonary artery systolic pressure; PE, pulmonary embolism/embolus; RV, right ventricle.