Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to total coffee consumption, by sex. The Tromsø Study 2015–2016

VariablesCups of coffee per day
01–23–45–6≥7
Women
n849130826151621774
Age, years50.4 (9.4)56.1 (12.9)57.38 (11.0)56.8 (10.5)56.1 (9.5)
Total cholesterol, mmol/L5.2 (1.0)5.5 (1.1)5.6 (1.0)5.6 (1.1)5.7 (1.0)
BMI, kg/m227.5 (5.9)26.8 (5.1)26.6 (4.7)26.9 (4.8)27.6 (5.2)
Daily smoking, %
 Yes, now7.45.69.317.937.0
 Yes, previously26.436.646.049.544.1
 Never66.257.844.732.619.0
Physical activity, %
 Low16.813.613.012.515.5
 Moderate58.965.465.866.365.2
 High21.418.218.718.817.7
 Very high2.82.82.52.51.6
Highest level of education, %
 Primary/secondary ≤10 years13.019.320.724.629.6
 Upper secondary: 13 years24.620.424.627.128.8
 College/university <4 years20.318.918.917.515.9
 College/university ≥4 years42.235.835.830.825.7
Diabetes mellitus, %
 No93.594.395.696.394.4
 Yes, now5.25.13.93.04.9
 Yes, previously1.30.50.50.70.6
Alcohol frequency, %
 Never18.79.36.68.25.2
 Monthly or less frequently39.729.924.224.334.0
 2–4 times per month27.634.237.940.137.9
 2–3 times per week11.021.524.822.919.9
 ≥4 times per week3.15.26.54.43.1
Men
n544759199819831438
Age, years52.2 (10.2)58.9 (12.4)58.4 (11.8)56.7 (10.7)55.7 (10.1)
Total cholesterol, mmol/L5.2 (1.0)5.3 (1.1)5.4 (1.1)5.4 (1.1)5.5 (1.1)
BMI, kg/m228.4 (4.8)27.6 (3.8)27.5 (3.7)27.8 (4.0)28.1 (3.9)
Daily smoking, %
 Yes, now8.66.66.411.427.5
 Yes, previously23.739.344.448.144.8
 Never67.654.249.240.527.7
Physical activity, %
 Low18.615.212.913.917.5
 Moderate49.954.750.750.851.0
 High27.226.232.331.728.9
 Very high4.84.04.13.62.6
Highest level of education, %
 Primary/secondary ≤10 years18.217.419.119.827.6
 Upper secondary: 13 years26.729.228.629.734.4
 College/university <4 years21.120.423.422.219.7
 College/university ≥4 years34.032.928.928.318.3
Diabetes mellitus, %
 No91.593.093.694.294.7
 Yes, now8.36.36.05.55.1
 Yes, previously0.20.70.50.40.2
Alcohol frequency, %
 Never18.07.45.53.04.2
 Monthly or less frequently34.424.518.616.221.1
 2–4 times per month29.033.238.542.743.3
 2–3 times per week13.425.429.630.324.4
 ≥4 times per week5.19.57.87.87.0
  • Values are means with SD in parenthesis (continuous variables) or percentage (categorical variables).

  • BMI, body mass index.