Table 5

Linear regression coefficients for the association between S-TC and consumption of instant coffee, by sex and according to complete case or missing indicator method. The Tromsø Study 2015–2016

Cups of coffee per dayNComplete case
β (95% CI)
NMissing indicator method
β (95% CI)
Women
 057390 (reference)58180 (reference)
 1–29900.05 (–0.02 to 0.12)14040.04 (–0.2 to 0.10)
 3–53620.12 (0.01 to 0.23)6110.10 (0.01 to 0.20)
 ≥6760.09 (–0.15 to 0.34)1230.04 (–0.15 to 0.22)
P linear trend0.250.044
Men
 054480 (reference)55160 (reference)
 1–27960.14 (0.06 to 0.21)10760.12 (0.04 to 0.19)
 3–53710.02 (–0.10 to 0.13)5620.08 (–0.02 to 0.18)
 ≥61070.10 (–0.10 to 0.31)1620.12 (–0.05 to 0.29)
P linear trend0.0310.006
P interaction*0.0040.009
  • Adjusted for age, BMI, daily smoking, physical activity, education, alcohol consumption, diabetes and combined coffee habits.

  • β, regression coefficient, difference in total cholesterol (mmol/L) compared to the reference group of 0 cups per day.

  • *Test for interaction between sex and coffee consumption (as an ordinal variable).

  • BMI, body mass index; S-TC, serum total cholesterol.