Table 1

General and obstetric characteristics of the study population

Study population
General characteristicsN=197 pregnancies
Maternal age (years)34 (30–37)
 >4031 (15.7)
BAME ethnicity32 (16.2)
Pregestational BMI (kg/m2)22.6 (20.4–25.6)
 >3016 (9.3)
Diabetes mellitus2 (1.0)
Chronic hypertension15 (7.6)
Substance abuse21 (10.7)
Risk factors for CVD78 (39.6)
Type of HD
 Arrhythmia44 (22.3)
 Coronary artery disease7 (3.6)
 Cardiomiopathy26 (13.2)
 Congenital54 (27.4)
 Valvular57 (28.9)
 Other9 (4.6)
Obstetric history and pregnancy courseN=197 pregnancies
First pregnancy64 (32.5)
Nulliparity130 (66.0)
Previous caesarean delivery46 (23.4)
 >111 (23.9)
 For cardiology reasons (n=9 missing)10 (21.7)
ART conception13 (6.6)
Multiple gestation12 (6.1)
GA at first antenatal obstetric assessment (weeks)9 (8–11)
Low dose aspirin45 (22.8)
Low molecular weight heparin34 (17.3)
 therapeutic dosage10 (29.4)
Miscarriage4 (2.0)
Stillbirth (>22 weeks)3 (1.5)
Pregnancy induced hypertension33 (16.8)
GDM22 (11.2)
  • Data presented as median (IQR) or number (percentage).

  • Substance abuse includes cigarette smoking, drugs, alcohol.

  • Risk factors for CVD include maternal age >40 years, pregestational BMI >35 kg/m2, BAME ethnicity, pregestational diabetes, chronic hypertension, substance abuse, history of cardiotoxic chemotherapy.

  • Type of HD: bicuspid valve disease was classified within the valvular category; isolated pulmonic stenosis was categorised as valvular, but if pulmonic stenosis existed concurrently with any other cardiac malformations, it was categorised as CHD.

  • Low-molecular-weight Heparin, therapeutic dosage: 6000 IU two times a day in 9 pregnancies and 8000 IU two times a day in one pregnancy.

  • Pregnancy-induced hypertension includes gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia.

  • ART, assisted reproductive technology; BAME, black, Asian and minor ethnicities; BMI, body mass index; CHD, congenital HD; CVD, cardiovascular disease; GA, gestational age; GDM, gestational diabetes mellitus.; HD, heart disease.