Table 1

Baseline characteristics

AllNo significant pericardial effusionWith significant pericardial effusion*P value†
N14601230230
Characteristics
Sex, male, n (%)1019 (70)845 (69)174 (76)0.035
Age, years, median (IQR)71 (63–76)72 (65–76)65 (54–72)≤0.001
Age-groups, n (%)
18–65 years453 (31)337 (27)116 (50)≤0.001
>66 years1007 (69)893 (73)114 (50)
Preoperative information
Reduced pulmonary function‡, n (%)534 (37)447 (36)87 (39)0.534
EuroScore II, median (IQR)2.1 (1.2–3.7)2.2 (1.3–3.8)1.8 (0.9–2.9)≤0.001
Estimated glomerular filtration rate§ mL/min<60, n (%)318 (24)280 (25)38 (18)0.019
Atrial fibrillation, n (%)359 (25)308 (25)51 (22)0.354
Anticoagulation, n (%)233 (16)209 (17)35 (15)0.332
Diabetes¶, n (%)191 (13)160 (13)31 (13)0.857
Ejection fraction ≤50, n (%)453 (32)379 (32)74 (34)0.540
Previous cardiac surgery, n (%)144 (10)132 (11)12 (5)0.009
Previous PCI, n (%)134 (10)114 (10)20 (9)0.757
NYHA class ≥3, n (%)582 (40)496 (41)86 (39)0.546
Body mass index, median (IQR)26 (24–30)26 (24–30)27 (24–29)0.624
Current or former smoker, n (%)840 (58)714 (58)126 (55)0.298
Alcohol intake above national high-risk limit, n (%)152 (10)132 (11)20 (9)0.353
Primary diagnosis, n (%)
Aortic valve stenosis902 (62)777 (63)125 (54)0.010
Aortic valve regurgitation246 (17)186 (15)60 (26)≤0.001
Mitral valve stenosis or regurgitation303 (21)259 (21)44 (19)0.498
Surgical information, n (%)
Type of valve procedure
Aortic valve, biological934 (64)818 (67)116 (50)≤0.001
Aortic valve, mechanical208 (14)139 (11)69 (30)≤0.001
Aortic valve, repair21 (1)15 (1)6 (3)0.106
Mitral valve, replacement**92 (6)75 (6)17 (7)0.474
Mitral valve, repair196 (13)175 (14)21 (9)0.036
Concomitant CABG, n (%)396 (27)366 (30)30 (13)≤0.001
Postprocedure related
ECC, min, median (IQR)110 (90–141)110 (90–139)111 (91–150)0.371
Re-operation, all, n (%)132 (9)105 (9)27 (12)0.120
Re-operation, bleeding, n (%)27 (2)21 (2)6 (3)0.352
Need for blood transfusions, n (%)713 (49)613 (50)100 (44)0.128
Postoperative atrial fibrillation, n (%)876 (61)726 (59)150 (67)0.039
New-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation, n (%)609 (42)503 (41)106 (47)0.095
Length of stay, days9 (7–13)9 (7–12)11 (7.5–18)≤0.001
  • IQR: 25th to 75th quartile.

  • *A significant pericardial effusion was defined as a pericardial effusion requiring drainage/pericardiocentesis.

  • †A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant (shown in bold).

  • ‡Patients with forced expiratory volume,%≤80% of predicted value and/or a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  • §Estimated glomerular filtration rate estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault equation.

  • ¶Patients with diabetes; insulin, peroral and non-pharmacological treatment.

  • **Both biological and mechanical mitral valve replacement.

  • CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; EEC, extra corporal circulation; NYHA, New York Heart Association Class; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.