Table 3

Unadjusted characteristics associated with significant pericardial effusions within 90 days after surgery

Univariable model 1
Pericardial effusion, index admission
(events, n=125)
Univariable model 2
Pericardial effusion, after discharge
(events, n=105)
HR95% CIP value*HR95% CIP value
Sex, male vs female0.890.61 to 1.300.5562.611.51 to 4.51≤0.001
18–65 years vs >651.771.24 to 2.520.0023.462.34 to 5.12≤0.001
Age (years)0.970.95 to 0.98≤0.0010.940.93 to 0.95≤0.001
Preoperative information
Reduced pulmonary function†1.280.90 to 1.820.1740.930.61 to 1.400.722
EuroScore II1.051.01 to 1.080.0060.630.52 to 0.75≤0.001
Estimated glomerular filtration rate‡ mL/min<601.060.70 to 1.610.7820.310.15 to 0.61≤0.001
Preoperative atrial fibrillation1.340.92 to 1.970.1300.450.25 to 0.810.007
Anticoagulation (before surgery)1.290.73 to 2.270.3820.450.18 to 1.110.083
Diabetes§1.270.79 to 2.050.3300.770.41 to 1.430.402
Ejection fraction, ≤501.431.00 to 2.050.0530.790.50 to 1.250.139
Previous heart surgery0.870.47 to 1.620.6700.110.02 to 0.820.031
Previous PCI0.830.44 to 1.590.5841.050.55 to 2.020.881
NYHA class ≥3, n (%)1.370.96 to 1.940.0820.570.37 to 0.890.013
Body mass index0.990.96 to 1.030.7921.020.98 to 1.060.370
Current or former smoker0.900.63 to 1.270.5410.830.57 to 1.230.357
Alcohol intake above national recommendations0.500.23 to 1.080.0761.160.65 to 2.080.607
Aortic valve regurgitation vs stenosis1.601.03 to 2.490.0362.371.55 to 3.64≤0.001
Aortic valve disease vs mitral valve disease0.820.54 to 1.240.3431.700.97 to 2.990.064
Surgical information
Aortic valve, mechanical vs biological2.351.53 to 3.60≤0.0013.702.44 to 5.62≤0.001
Mitral valve, replacement vs repair2.481.17 to 5.280.0180.780.21 to 2.890.713
Concomitant CABG0.490.31 to 0.800.0040.260.13 to 0.49≤0.001
Re-operation due to bleeding3.461.41 to 8.500.007
Postoperative atrial fibrillation0.650.44 to 0.970.033
Medical treatment prescribed after surgery
Dalteparin0.660.44 to 0.990.043
Warfarin1.731.18 to 2.530.005
Platelet aggregation inhibitors
Acetylsalicyl acid0.340.23 to 0.51≤0.001
Ticagrelor0.330.05 to 2.370.271
Clopidogrel0.820.44 to 1.530.535
Dipyridamol0.750.18 to 3.030.685
Direct oral anticoagulants, DOAC
Apixaban0.530.17 to 1.680.283
Dabigatranetexilat0.380.05 to 2.750.341
Combination of treatment
Dualtherapy, anticoagulants1.220.83 to 1.790.312
SAPT and anticoagulants0.240.13 to 0.47≤0.001
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), ibuprofen1.801.22 to 2.630.003
  • IQR: 25th to 75th quartile.

  • *A p value of <0.20 was considered statistically significant (shown in bold).

  • †Patients with forced expiratory volume,%≤80% of predicted value and/or a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  • ‡Estimated glomerular filtration rate estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault equation.

  • §Patients with diabetes; insulin, peroral and non-pharmacological treatment.

  • CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; DOAC, direct oral anticoagulants; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; NYHA, New York Heart Association Class; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; SAPT, single antiplatelet therapy.