Table 3

Anatomic predictors of mid-term or long-term success about AF recurrence

AnatomyCT analysis
  1. PV dorsal-caudal comparing to dorsal-cranial orientation (HR 3.447, 95% CI 1.180 to 10.070, p=0.024).10

  2. PV ventral-caudal to dorsal-cranial orientation (HR 3.391, 95% CI 1.088 to 10.571, p=0.035).10

  1. RSPV diameter: 21.6±2.8 mm at AF recurrence group vs 15.8±2.1 mm at no AF recurrence group (p<0.001).11

  1. RIPV‐TS frontal angle (°): 45±17° at persistent RIPV isolation group vs 30±14° at RIPV reconnection group.12

A score for predicting unfavourable left atrium and PV anatomy
  1. Score consists of RSPV ovality index >1.32, LSPV ovality index >1.2, RSPV antral circumference >69.1 mm, RIPV antral circumference >61.38 mm, RSPV >22.7°, LA diameter and right middle PV.13

  2. Score of ≥4 predicted needs for longer cryoenergy ablation.13

No association between anatomy and AF recurrence
  1. No relationship with anatomy (PV ovality, the presence of anatomical variants (right middle PVs, common ostia), shared carina nor carina width).14.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; LIPV, left inferior pulmonary vein; LSPV, left superior pulmonary vein; PV, pulmonary vein; RIPV, right inferior pulmonary vein; RSPV, right superior pulmonary vein.