Table 1

History of potential red flag diagnoses and time from first occurrence of red flag to ATTR-CM diagnosis

Red flag diagnosis*Patients with ATTR-CM (n=994)HF comparison cohort (n=993)P value; share of patients†, median years‡
n (%)Years from red flag to index, median (q25, q75)n (%)Years from red flag to index, median (q25, q75)
Carpal tunnel syndrome (unilateral and bilateral)167 (16.8)6.7 (3.7, 10.6)32 (3.2)6.4 (3.0, 9.7)0.023, 0.636
Spinal stenosis86 (8.7)5.3 (2.4, 7.6)33 (3.3)4.6 (3.1, 8.9)0.157, 0.622
Conductive and sensorineural hearing loss104 (10.5)6.4 (3.7, 9.6)67 (6.7)6.5 (3.2, 10.5)0.204, 0.806
Atrioventricular and left bundle branch block84 (8.5)2.5 (0.9, 5.9)50 (5.0)3.1 (1.1, 6.4)0.229, 0.867
Atrial fibrillation and flutter350 (35.2)3.0 (1.0, 6.3)320 (32.2)3.4 (0.8, 7.8)0.207, 0.028
Other functional intestinal disorders84 (8.5)4.2 (1.3, 7.5)58 (5.8)4.0 (1.5, 8.6)0.279, 0.747
Other cardiac arrhythmias82 (8.2)5.6 (2.2, 10.4)61 (6.1)3.1 (0.5, 6.3)0.316, 0.671
Other conduction disorders33 (3.3)3.0 (1.1, 5.7)17 (1.7)2.0 (0.2, 5.0)0.372, 0.081
Supraventricular tachycardia26 (2.6)3.9 (2.2, 7.9)11 (1.1)2.0 (1.3, 5.6)0.387, 0.900
Non-rheumatic aortic (valve) stenosis39 (3.9)3.4 (1.2, 7.9)52 (5.2)3.4 (0.9, 7.1)0.616, 0.436
Sick sinus syndrome27 (2.7)6.7 (4.3, 10.9)21 (2.1)2.2 (0.3, 4.7)0.447, 0.604
Other specified cardiac arrhythmias11 (1.1)3.5 (0.5, 7.3)7 (0.7)4.7 (2.4, 9.8)0.466, 0.927
Irritable bowel syndrome18 (1.8)3.7 (1.5, 7.2)15 (1.5)6.3 (5.0, 9.0)0.473, 0.086
Injury of muscle and tendon of other parts of biceps0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Injury of muscle and tendon of long head of biceps≤511.9 (10.3, 13.5)0 (0.0)
Primary pulmonary hypertension≤50.8 (0.3, 1.8)5.2 (3.7, 5.9)–, 0.655
Other secondary pulmonary hypertension≤56.0 (5.0, 6.9)≤50.3 (0.2, 1.4)–, 0.626
Acute pericarditis8 (0.8)0.4 (0.2, 1.5)≤50.2 (0.1, 4.2)–, 0.791
  • *Red flags are ordered after % point difference between patients with ATTR-CM and patients with HF.

  • †P value for the difference between share of patients with each red flag in the ATTR-CM cohort and the HF comparison cohort (columns 2 and 4).

  • ‡P value for the difference between median years from red flag to index in the ATTR-CM cohort and the HF comparison cohort (columns 3 and 5).

  • ATTR-CM, transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy; HF, heart failure.