Table 1

Baseline clinical characteristics stratified by the presence of visible CAC

All patients (n=280)Non-visible CAC (n=108)Visible CAC (n=172)P value
Age (years)—median (IQR)69 (54–82)51 (37–63)78 (66–86)<0.001
Male, n (%)142 (51)50 (46)92 (54)0.241
Diabetes, n (%)78 (28)14 (13)64 (37)<0.001
Hypertension, n (%)149 (53)28 (26)121 (70)<0.001
Hyperlipidaemia, n (%)90 (32)17 (16)73 (42)<0.001
Smoking history, n (%)93 (33)30 (28)63 (37)0.126
Chronic airways disease, n (%)79 (28)27 (25)52 (30)0.344
Chronic kidney disease, n (%)78 (28)15 (14)63 (37)<0.001
CAC score per Agatston—median (IQR)7 (0–205)0 (0–0)95 (14–498)<0.001
CAC percentile—median (IQR)18 (0–67)0 (0–0)55 (23–79)<0.001
  • CAC percentile refers to the age and sex adjusted percentile as per Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

  • CAC, coronary artery calcium.