Table 3

Echocardiographic indications and parameters stratified by COVID-19 status

COVID-19-negativeCOVID-19-positiveP value
NAvailable results
(out of 23)
Available results
(out of 56)
Echocardiogram type23560.001
 Complete14 (60.9)12 (21.4)
 Limited technician6 (26.1)39 (69.6)
 Point of care3 (13)5 (8.9)
Echocardiogram indication2356
Time from admission to echocardiogram (days)231 (1–1)562 (1.0–4.3)0.003
Cardiac-specific
 Abnormal biomarker4 (17.4)9 (16.1)>0.99
 Cardiogenic shock3 (13)3 (5.4)0.48
 Cardiac signs10 (43.5)13 (23.2)0.13
 Arrhythmia2 (8.7)5 (8.9)>0.99
Not cardiac-specific
 Worsening hypoxaemia1 (4.3)24 (42.9)0.002
 Clinical deterioration10 (43.5)20 (35.7)0.70
Change in management2311 (47.8)5610 (17.9)0.01
LVEF % (median, IQR)2249 (31.5–60.0)5655 (47.3–60.0)0.09
 ≥5011 (47.8)38 (67.9)
 40–494 (17.4)11 (19.6)
 30–391 (4.3)3 (5.4)
 <306 (26.1)4 (7.1)
Diastolic function10430.80
 Grade 16 (26.1)21 (37.5)
 Grade 23 (13)7 (12.5)
 Grade 3/41 (4.3)2 (3.6)
RV size19520.18
 Normal17 (73.9)42 (75)
 Mildly dilated07 (12.5)
 Moderately dilated2 (8.7)3 (5.4)
 Severely dilated0 (0)1 (1.8)
RV systolic function18510.25
 Normal11 (47.8)39 (69.6)
 Mildly reduced3 (13)8 (14.3)
 Moderately reduced3 (13)4 (7.1)
 Severely reduced1 (4.3)1 (1.8)
RVSP1336 (29–52)3328 (21–40)0.35
Strain %
 LV strain17−11.8 (–15.9 to –6.3)42−14.5 (–16.3 to –11.6)0.12
 LA strain1215.9 (8.2–26.8)3131.4 (19.2–38.1)0.07
  • Data displayed as median (IQR) or number (%).

  • LA, left atrial; LV, left ventricular; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; RV, right ventricular; RVSP, right ventricular systolic pressure.