Table 4

Echocardiographic parameters for COVID-19-positive patients stratified by survival

SurvivorsDeathsP value
N4214
Echocardiogram type0.59
 Complete10 (23.8)2 (14.3)
 Limited technician29 (69)10 (71.4)
 Point of care3 (7.1)2 (14.3)
Echocardiogram indication
Cardiac-specific
 Abnormal biomarker7 (16.7)2 (14.3)>0.99
 Cardiogenic shock2 (4.8)1 (7.1)>0.99
 Cardiac signs11 (26.2)2 (14.3)0.58
 Arrhythmia4 (9.5)1 (7.1)>0.99
Not cardiac-specific
 Worsening hypoxaemia18 (42.9)6 (42.9)>0.99
 Clinical deterioration10 (23.8)10 (71.4)0.004
LVEF (%)55 (48–60)57.5 (46.0–63.8)0.80
Diastolic function0.57
 Grade 117 (40.5)4 (28.6)
 Grade 25 (11.9)2 (14.3)
 Grade 3/41 (2.4)1 (7.1)
RV size0.69
 Normal32 (76.2)10 (71.4)
 Mildly dilated6 (14.3)1 (7.1)
 Moderately dilated3 (7.1)0 (0)
 Severely dilated1 (2.4)0 (0)
RV systolic function0.68
 Normal30 (71.4)9 (64.3)
 Mildly reduced6 (14.3)2 (14.3)
 Moderately reduced4 (9.5)0 (0)
 Severely reduced1 (2.4)0 (0)
RVSP25 (20.3–38.9)37 (30.5–65.0)0.04
Strain %
 LV strain−14.4 (–16.5 to –11.5)−14.9 (–15.6 to –13.4)0.46
 LA strain30.5 (19.9–37.8)38.5 (23.2–45.0)0.29
  • Data displayed as median (IQR) or number (%).

  • LA, left atrial; LV, left ventricular; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; RV, right ventricular; RVSP, right ventricular systolic pressure.