Table 1

Baseline clinical, demographic and echocardiographic characteristics between the atrial fibrillation recurrence (AFR) and maintenance of sinus rhythm (MSR) groups in all subjects

VariablesAFR group (n=41)MSR group (n=83)P value
Age (years)65.5±6.062.6±7.30.033
Male sex (%)28 (68.3%)47 (56.6%)0.216
Body mass index (kg/m2)27.8±5.626.5±4.90.645
AF type0.114
 Persistent AF26 (63.4%)40 (48.2%)
 Paroxysmal AF15 (36.6%)43 (51.8%)
AF duration (months)38.7±35.536.5±33.70.743
Hypertension (%)29 (70.7%)53 (63.9%)0.290
Smoking (%)14 (34.1%)32 (38.6%)0.633
Type 2 diabetes (%)12 (29.3%)21 (25.3%)0.638
Dyslipidaemia (%)23 (56.1%)43 (51.8%)0.652
History of TIA/stroke (%)11 (26.8%)14 (16.9%)0.144
History of CAD (%)8 (19.5%)12 (14.5%)0.317
Antiplatelets (%)10 (24.4%)25 (30.1%)0.328
ACEI/ARB (%)22 (53.7%)46 (55.4%)0.502
Beta-blockers (%)29 (70.7%)64 (77.1%)0.288
NT-pro-BNP (pg/mL)1046.0±1044.2527.8±564.90.000
sUA (μmol/L)345.8±106.6326.3±78.60.254
TAPSE (mm)20±419±40.185
LVMI (g/m2)85.8±16.680.4±16.80.093
LVEF (%)59.2±7.160.8±5.60.161
LAVImax (mL/m2)44.1±11.437.2±12.40.001
LAAFV (cm/s)36.2±12.050.3±16.90.000
GLS (%)19.8±4.526.6±5.50.000
  • Values are expressed as mean±SD or frequency (%).

  • ACEI/ARB, ACE inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker; AF, atrial fibrillation; CAD, coronary artery disease; GLS, global longitudinal strain; LAAFV, left atrial appendage emptying flow velocity; LAVImax, left atrial maximal volume index; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVMI, left ventricular mass index; NT-pro-BNP, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; sUA, serum uric acid; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.