Table 1

Study and participant characteristics

Author, yearCountryNo of participantsAssessment time pointsMean age, years (SD)Male, %LVEF, % (SD)NYHA II-III, %Physical activity‡
Ajiboye et al,19 2015Nigeria232812 weeks54 (1.6)53.7Self-reported physical activity (diary)
Bernocchi et al,20 2018Italy56564 months2 months71(9)8844.5 (12.4)45Accelerometer (Average energy activity counts)
Boyne et al,21 2014Netherlands1851971 year71 (11.9))58<4029; 21Exercise: Heart Failure Selfcare, Behaviour Scale (Jaarsma, Strömberg, Mårtensson, & Dracup, 2003)
Brodie et al,22 2005; 2008UK3230 (MI and UC);30 (MI)8 weeks79 (6.9)‡31.3 (5.9)§28; 58Self-reported general physical activity (Booth et al., 1996)
Collins et al,23 2004UK161524 weeks62.7 (11.2)10031.7 (6.9)Self-reported physical activity (diary)
Corvera-Tindel et al,24 2004USA423712 weeks63.8 (10.1)9929.1 (8.5)80; 20Pedometer
Cowie et al,25 2013UK2020 (Home); 20 (Hospital)8 weeks66 (35–85)¶85<4062; 38Accelerometer (Average energy activity counts)
Dalal et al,26 2019UK929312 weeks69.7 (10.9)7834.5 (25–39)¶59Accelerometer (Average energy activity counts)
Freedland et al,27 2015USA60586 months12 months55.8 (11.2)‡53.838.9 (15.5)‡42.4Accelerometer (Average energy activity counts)
Jolly et al,36 2009UK858424 weeks12 months65.9 (12.5)76<4075; 20Self-reported physical activity (minutes per week, Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, (Godin & Shephard, 1985)
Meng et al,38 2013; 2016Germany2272486; 12 months61.2 (11.7)7531.7 (7.0)54.7Self-reported physical activity (minutes per week, Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, (Godin & Shephard, 1985)
O'Connor et al,37 2009USA (88.72%)
Canada (8.07%)
France (3.33%)
1172115924 weeks12; 30 months59.2 (51.2–67.8)¶72<3562; 36Self-reported physical activity (diary)
Pozehl et al,28 2018USA10210218 months60.4 (11.5)‡56.039.4 (12.7)‡91.2Self-reported physical activity
Smeulders et al,29 2009Netherlands1311866 weeks6;12 months66.6 (11.0)75.8<4064; 36Self-reported physical activity
Tomita et al,30 2008USA13191 year74.2 (9.7)32.575; 25Self-reported physical activity
van den Berg-Emons et al,31 2004Netherlands161812 weeks58.6 (12.1)8123.9 (9.4)56; 44Accelerometer (Average energy activity counts)
Willenheimer et al,32 1998Sweden272316 weeks6 months64 (5)700.35 (0.11)50; 36Self-reported physical activity (The total physical activity score calculated using the following formula: Time spent on each activity per week intensity*2/100)
Witham et al,33 2005UK414112 weeks6 months80 (6)6361; 39Accelerometer (Average energy activity counts)
Yeh et al,34 2004USA505012 weeks68.1 (11.9)5628.3 (8.0)62; 18Self-reported physical activity (CHAMPS; Stewart 2001)
Young et al,35 2015; 2016USA49513 months6 months68.7 (11.8)47.153.4 (12.9)29.4 ;56.9Accelerometer (Average energy activity counts)
Meta-analysis sample:N (Control)=2555N (Intervention)=372266 years
Male (69.49 %)
  • Physical activity outcome was defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure (WHO, 2018). Exercise is a subset of physical activity defined as structured physical activity (WHO, 2018). In the context of HF, exercise is also defined as self-care behaviour (ie, ‘I exercise regularly’).

  • *Time from baseline.

  • †Time from intervention completion.

  • ‡Mean for the total sample.

  • §Group 1: MI + UC; - not reported.

  • ¶Median age (range).

  • HF, heart failure; MI, Motivational Interviewing; UC, usual care.