Table 3

Results of Cox proportional hazard modelling of risk of incident heart failure, in a subgroup analysis excluding HF events within 2 years of baseline

HR95% CI of HRP value
Fried phenotype
Adjusted for age only (n=1422)
 Prefrail vs non-frail1.640.91 to 2.940.10
 Frail vs non-frail1.590.73 to 3.470.24
 Modelled continuously for trend1.280.90 to 1.840.17
Fully adjusted* (n=1268)
 Prefrail vs non-frail1.440.78 to 2.670.25
 Frail vs non-frail1.150.49 to 2.690.75
 Modelled continuously for trend1.100.75 to 1.620.63
Gill-like score
Adjusted for age only (n=1422)
 Moderate vs mild/no frailty1.180.51 to 2.750.70
 Severe vs mild/no frailty1.680.52 to 5.370.38
 Modelled continuously for trend1.260.76 to 2.080.80
Fully adjusted* (n=1268)
 Moderate vs mild/no frailty1.250.52 to 2.980.62
 Severe vs mild/no frailty0.920.22 to 3.880.90
 Modelled continuously for trend1.030.59 to 1.800.93
Novel frailty score
Adjusted for age only (n=1422)
 1 vs 01.430.83 to 2.460.20
 2 vs 02.701.29 to 5.620.008
 3 vs 01.690.52 to 5.490.38
 Modelled continuously for trend1.381.06 to 1.790.02
Fully adjusted* (n=1268)
 1 vs 01.150.64 to 2.070.93
 2 vs 02.241.02 to 4.950.05
 3 vs 02.050.61 to 6.920.25
 Modelled continuously for trend1.341.00 to 1.800.05
  • *Fully adjusted=adjusted for age, prevalent myocardial infarction, prevalent stroke, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, use of blood pressure lowering medications, eGFR, FEV1, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular hypertrophy, Q waves and log IL-6.

  • eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; IL-6, interleukin-6.