Table 1

Baseline characteristics

Patients (n=30)Controls (n=30)P value
Demographics and cardiovascular risk factors
Age, years41 (35–44)42 (35–45)0.131
Female sex15 (50)15 (50)1
Body surface area, m22.04±0.241.93±0.240.022
Body mass index, kg/m228.4±526.9±5.20.294
Hypertension*9 (30)4 (13)0.227
Diabetes mellitus, type 11 (3.3)0 (0)1
Current tobacco use9 (30)11 (36.7)0.774
Alcohol week doses†2 (1–4)4 (2–6)0.416
Physical inactivity4 (13)4 (13)1
Stroke phenotype
Fulfils criteria for ESUS21 (70)NANA
NIH Stroke Scale1.5 (0–4)NANA
Right-to-left shunt‡7 (24)1 (3)0.012
Ventricular volumes and function—CMR
LV end-diastolic volume, mL/m282.5 (77.9–89.3)84.5 (76–93.5)0.910
LV end-systolic volume, mL/m230.5±631.1±7.20.734
LV mass, g/m254.8 (48.5–59.9)54.8 (49.1–60.2)0.417
LVEF, %64.1±4.763.8±5.10.820
RV end-diastolic volume, mL/m282.1 (77.2–95.2)85.8 (76.7–93.8)0.704
RV end-systolic volume, mL/m234.5 (28–40.7)34.5 (30–40.3)0.894
RVEF, %59.3 (54.7–63.9)60 (57.7–63.1)0.910
  • Values are mean±SD, median (IQR) or number (%).

  • Statistically significant associations (P<0.05) denoted in bold.

  • *Hypertension was based on any criteria: office hypertension >150/90, history of hypertension or blood pressure medication prior stroke.

  • †One subject had missing data.

  • ‡Right-to-left shunt was evaluated with transoesophageal echocardiography in patients (n=29) and transcranial Doppler in controls (n=30)—comparison of 29 case-control pairs.

  • CMR, cardiac magnetic resonance; ESUS, embolic stroke of undetermined source; LV, left ventricle; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NA, not applicable; NIH Stroke Scale, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale; RV, right ventricle; RVEF, right ventricular ejection fraction.