Table 3

Competing risks regression analyses for incident heart failure and stroke by heart rate

Model 1Model 2
SHR95% CIP valueSHR95% CIP value
Heart failure hospitalisation
Per 10 bpm increase0.980.91 to 1.050.540.990.92 to 1.060.78
<60 bpm0.990.68 to 1.440.950.950.65 to 1.390.79
≥100 bpm1.050.72 to 1.530.791.160.79 to 1.710.44
Stroke or systemic embolism
Per 10 bpm0.930.84 to to 1.060.30
<60 bpm1.010.52 to 1.930.990.970.49 to 1.900.92
  • Model 1 is adjusted for age and sex.

  • Model 2 is adjusted for model 1+ body mass index, physical activity, smoking status (never, former or current), type of AF (paroxysmal and persistent vs permanent), alcohol use (log-transformed), history of stroke/TIA, history of heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, the use of beta-blockers, non-dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers, class 1c antiarrhythmic drugs, class 3 antiarrhythmic drugs, digoxin and oral anticoagulation.

  • Includes 1679 subjects, with 162 subjects with heart rate <60 and 201 subjects with heart rate ≥100 bpm.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; SHR, sub-HR; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.