Table 2

Cox regression models for the associations of resting heart rate with adverse outcomes

EventsIncidence rate, per 1000 (95% CI)Model 1Model 2
HR95% CIP valueHR95% CIP value
Heart failure hospitalisation30147.3 (42.3 to 53.0)
Per 10 bpm increase0.980.92 to 1.050.571.000.94 to 1.070.95
<60 bpm3152.3 (36.8 to 74.4)0.970.67 to 1.410.880.920.63 to 1.340.65
≥100 bpm3339.6 (28.2 to 55.8)1.030.72 to 1.490.851.170.81 to 1.700.40
Total mortality28341.4 (36.9 to 46.5)
Per 10 bpm increase0.990.93 to 1.060.821.020.95 to 1.090.66
<60 bpm3046.4 (32.8 to 66.4)0.960.65 to 1.400.820.890.60 to 1.310.55
≥100 bpm2528.3 (19.1 to 41.7)0.850.56 to 1.290.450.940.62 to 1.440.79
Stroke or systemic embolism9614.4 (11.8 to 17.6)
Per 10 bpm increase0.930.83 to 1.050.270.950.84 to 1.070.38
<60 bpm1016.0 (8.6 to 29.7)0.980.51 to 1.900.950.950.48 to 1.840.87
  • Model 1 is adjusted for age and sex.

  • Model 2 is adjusted for model 1+body mass index, physical activity, smoking status (never, former or current), type of AF (paroxysmal and persistent vs permanent), alcohol use (log-transformed), history of stroke/TIA, history of heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, the use of beta-blockers, non-dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers, class 1c antiarrhythmic drugs, class 3 antiarrhythmic drugs, digoxin and oral anticoagulation.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.