Table 2

Relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and incidence of non-fatal and fatal first-time coronary events and the significance of difference between the two outcomes

Non-fatal coronary eventFatal coronary eventHeterogeneity
HR95% CIP valueHR95% CIP valueP value
Model 1
Age, year1.071.07 to 1.08<0.0011.121.11 to 1.13<0.001<0.0001
Male gender2.542.33 to 2.76<0.0014.063.51 to 4.69<0.001<0.0001
Diabetes2.352.15 to 2.57<0.0012.522.20 to 2.89<0.0010.57
Current smoking1.881.77 to 2.01<0.0012.482.24 to 2.76<0.001<0.0001
Cholesterol, per mmol/L1.321.29 to 1.36<0.0011.331.27 to 1.39<0.0010.86
Body mass index, per kg/m21.251.19 to 1.31<0.0011.431.32 to 1.54<0.0010.0031
Systolic blood pressure, per 10 mm Hg1.141.12 to 1.16<0.0011.221.19 to 1.25<0.0010.0001
Diastolic blood pressure, per 10 mm Hg1.201.16 to 1.24<0.0011.341.28 to 1.41<0.0010.0001
Antihypertensive treatment1.551.38 to 1.75<0.0011.771.49 to 2.10<0.0010.23
Model 2
Age, per year1.061.06 to 1.07<0.0011.111.10 to 1.12<0.001<0.0001
Male gender2.302.11 to 2.50<0.0013.523.03 to 4.08<0.001<0.0001
Diabetes1.941.70 to 2.21<0.0011.901.56 to 2.32<0.0010.867
Current smoking1.931.81 to 2.05<0.0012.682.41 to 2.98<0.001<0.0001
Cholesterol, per mmol/L1.261.23 to 1.29<0.0011.241.18 to 1.29<0.0010.473
Body mass index, per kg/m21.141.08 to 1.19<0.0011.281.19 to 1.39<0.0010.011
Systolic blood pressure, per 10 mm Hg1.111.09 to 1.13<0.0011.191.15 to 1.23<0.0010.0002
Diastolic blood pressure, per 10 mm Hg1.161.12 to 1.20<0.0011.291.23 to 1.36<0.0010.0007
Antihypertensive treatment1.321.17 to 1.50<0.0011.371.15 to 1.640.0010.659
  • Model 1 includes covariates age and gender.

  • Model 2 includes age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, smoking habits, cholesterol, either systolic blood or diastolic blood pressure and antihypertensive treatment. Note: when systolic and diastolic blood pressure were included in the same model, systolic blood pressure showed stronger relationships to both non-fatal and fatal coronary events, compared with diastolic blood pressure.