Table 2

Clinical outcomes

VariableAll patients* n=839No history of CVD* n=562 (67%)History of CVD* n=277 (33%)P value
Composite outcome (death or MACE)225 (27)83 (15)142 (51)<0.001
In-hospital death (all-cause)152 (18)51 (9)101 (36)<0.001
MACE149 (18)43 (8)106 (38)<0.001
 Heart failure89 (11)18 (3)71 (26)<0.001
 Major arrhythmia45 (5)23 (4)22 (8)0.03
 Non-fatal MI (STEMI, NSTEMI)16 (2)4 (1)12 (4)<0.001
 Non-fatal stroke10 (1)4 (1)6 (2)0.090
 CV death55 (7)7 (1)48 (17)<0.001
Myocarditis3 (0)2 (0)1 (0)1
Venous thrombotic complications †35 (4)25 (4)10 (4)0.70
Hospitalisation
 Length of stay (days)10 (6–16)9 (5–14)12 (7–20)<0.001
Rehabilitation142 (17)75 (13)67 (24)<0.001
 Length of stay (days)16 (10–24)16 (10–25)15 (10–23)0.70
ICU stay102 (12)73 (13)29 (10)0.35
 Length of stay (days)12 (8–17)12 (8–17)12 (6–17)0.40
 Invasive ventilation93 (91)68 (93)25 (86)
  Duration (days)10 (7–15)10 (8–15)10 (7–12)
 Dialysis7 (7)4 (5)3 (10)
 ECMO11 (11)8 (11)3 (10)
IMCU stay135 (16)84 (15)51 (18)0.24
 Length of stay (days)4 (2–6)3 (2–5)4 (2–6)0.43
  • Except for lengths of stay (Welch Student test), all p values are according to χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test.

  • *Data are n (%) or median (Q1–Q3).

  • †Venous thrombotic complications include: pulmonary embolism, portal vein thrombosis and deep vein thrombosis.

  • ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; ICU, intensive care unit; IMCU, intermediate care unit; MACE, major adverse cardiovascular events.