Table 4

Patient characteristics according to survival outcome

VariableSurvived (with or without MACE)*
(n=687)
Died*
(n=152)
Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
P value
History of CVD176 (26)101 (66)5.7 (4.0 to 8.4)2.9 (1.7 to 5.0)<0.001
Age (per 10 years)62 (52–77)84 (76–88)2.4 (2.0 to 2.8)2.5 (2.0 to 3.2)<0.001
Male gender357 (52)96 (63)1.6 (1.1 to 2.3)1.6 (0.98 to 2.6)0.059
Lung opacity/infiltration112 (16)39 (26)1.8 (1.2 to 2.7)2.5 (1.5 to 4.4)0.001
Hypertension297 (43)95 (62)2.2 (1.5 to 3.2)0.80 (0.48 to 1.3)0.40
Obesity†170/611 (28)36/148 (24)0.83 (0.54 to 1.3)
Dyslipidaemia158 (23)47 (31)1.5 (1.0 to 2.2)0.67 (0.40 to 1.1)0.12
Diabetes122 (18)47 (31)2.1 (1.4 to 3.1)1.6 (0.91 to 2.6)0.10
Smoking31 (5)6 (4)0.87 (0.32 to 2.0)1.1 (0.31 to 3.1)0.89
COPD30 (4)19 (13)3.1 (1.7 to 5.7)2.0 (0.94 to 4.3)0.07
OSA53 (8)16 (11)1.4 (0.76 to 2.5)1.5 (0.68 to 3.1)0.31
High Creatinine‡ (n=817)187/671 (28)83/146 (57)3.4 (2.4 to 4.9)1.3 (0.79 to 2.1)0.30
CRP (per 10 units) (n=804)50 (19–91)78 (41–148)1.07 (1.04 to 1.09)1.1 (1.1 to 1.2)<0.001
Anaemia§ (n=814)233/668 (35)93/146 (64)3.3 (2.3 to 4.8)1.5 (0.90 to 2.3)0.13
AST/ALT >1 (n=767)439/630 (70)124/137 (91)4.1 (2.4 to 7.9)
  • *Data are n (%) or median (Q1–Q3).

  • †Missing BMI: n=80.

  • ‡Defined as creatinine >80 µmol/L for females and creatinine >106 µmol/L for males.

  • §Anaemia defined as haemoglobin <120 g/L for women and haemoglobin <140 g/L for men.

  • ALT, alanine transaminase; AST, aspartate transaminase ; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRP, C reactive protein; CVD, cardiovascular disease; MACE, major adverse cardiovascular event; OSA, obstructive sleep apnoea.