Table 5

Clinical characteristics in categorised groups by LV and PV reserve



Norma LV and PV reserveImpaired PV and normal LV reserveImpaired LV and normal PV reserveImpaired LV and PV reserve
Number49362728
Age57±1261±1264±1063±11
Male, %5 (10)6 (17)1 (4)2 (7)
Rest echocardiographic variables
LVEDVi, mL/m250±1050±1448±1148±9
LVESVi, mL/m217±417±517±417±4
LVEF, %65±466±364±366±4
LVMi, g/m276±1776±1574±2074±15
LAVi, mL/m227±827±1032±729±11
e’, cm/s11±311±310±210±3
E/e'6±28±38±47±3
RVEDA, cm214±315±414±314±3
RVESA, cm28±28±28±28±2
RVFAC, %44±1146±943±1044±10
GLS, %19±219±419±219±3
RVLS, %24±526±624±725±7
Exercise haemodynamics
Mean PAP, mm Hg17±217±418±218±3
Mean PAWP, mm Hg10±211±512±411±4
CO, L/min3.9±1.13.9±1.63.7±1.03.7±0.9
PVR, wood unit1.9±0.91.8±0.91.8±0.82.4±1.8
Exercise mean PAP, mm Hg21±424±5*21±326±6*
Exercise mean PAWP, mm Hg11±312±515±4*14±5*
Exercise CO, L/min7.3±2.55.5±1.7*5.8±1.8*4.9±0.9*
Exercise PVR, wood unit1.6±0.62.4±0.8*1.3±0.62.7±1.4*
ΔmPAP/ΔCO, mm Hg/L/min1.6±0.75.0±2.0*1.8±0.79.5±6.0*
ΔmPAWP/ΔCO, mm Hg/L/min0.3±0.20.7±0.41.5±0.5*3.0±1.7*
HR for outcomesReference9.9 (1.2–83.1)*8.4 (1.1–72.8)*35.4 (4.6–271)*
  • *Versus normal LV and PV, p<0.05.

  • CO, cardiac output; e’, early diastolic mitral annular motion; E, early diastolic transmitral flow velocity; LAVi, left atrial volume index; LVEDVi, left ventricular end-diastolic volume index; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESVi, left ventricular end-systolic volume index; LVMi, left ventricular mass index; mPAP, mean pulmonary artery pressure; mPAWP, mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure; PVR, pulmonary vascular resistance; RVEA, right ventricular end-diastolic area; RVESA, right ventricular end-systolic area; RVFAC, right ventricular functional area change; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.