Table 2

Univariable Cox proportional hazard models for clinical and echocardiographic variables

VariableUnivariable analysis
HR95% CIC-statisticP value
Age (per 1 year increase)1.041.03 to 1.060.63<0.001
Heart rate (per 1 beat/min increase)1.011.0 to 1.010.580.003
AF1.981.37 to 2.870.56<0.001
Diabetes1.921.29 to 2.870.530.001
PM2.151.24 to 3.720.520.007
BMI (per 1 kg/m2 increase)0.960.92 to 0.990.570.017
MAP (per 1 mm Hg increase)0.970.95 to 0.980.65<0.001
Cholesterol (per 1 mmol/L increase)2.150.70 to 960.560.014
LVIDd (per 1 cm increase)1.201.03 to 1.420.570.021
LVEDV (per 1 mL increase)1.011.01 to 1.020.62<0.001
LVESV (per 1 mL increase)1.001.00 to 1.010.59<0.001
LVEF (per 1% decrease)1.061.04 to<0.001
LVMI (per 1 g/m2 decrease)1.011.00 to 1.010.570.01
LAVI (per mL/m2 decrease)1.031.01 to 1.030.63<0.001
TAPSE (per 1 mm increase)0.920.89 to 0.950.63<0.001
E (per 1 m/s increase)1.951.18 to 3.320.580.009
DT (per 1 ms decrease)0.9970.99 to 1.000.580.011
e' (per 1 cm/s increase)0.930.86 to 0.990.570.026
E/e’ (per 1 decrease)1.041.02 to 1.070.62<0.001
GLS (per 1% decrease)1.221.15 to 1.280.69<0.001
GCS (per 1% decrease)1.121.06 to 1.170.64<0.001
Global SR (per s−1 decrease)16.46.3 to 42.50.66<0.001
S’ (per 1 cm/s decrease)1.431.27 to 1.610.68<0.001
Global LD (per 1 mm decrease)1.351.25 to 1.450.71<0.001
Inferior LD (per 1 mm decrease)1.291.22 to 1.370.72<0.001
Lateral LD (per 1 mm decrease)1.191.12 to 1.260.66<0.001
Septal LD (per 1 mm decrease)1.291.20 to 1.360.70<0.001
Posterior LD (per 1 mm decrease)1.191.13 to 1.260.67<0.001
Anterior septal LD (per 1 mm decrease)1.301.20 to 1.410.66<0.001
Anterior LD (per 1 mm decrease)1.211.14 to 1.290.66<0.001
  • AF, atrial fibrillation; BMI, body mass index; DT, deceleration time; e’, average peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity; E, peak transmitral early diastolic inflow velocity; GCS, global circumferential strain; GLS, global longitudinal strain; LAVI, left atrial volume index; LD, longitudinal displacement; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume; LVIDd, left ventricular internal dimension in diastole; LVMI, left ventricular mass index; MAP, mean arterial pressure; PM, pacemaker; SR, strain rate; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.