Table 3

Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models for global and regional LD, respectively; only variables with a p value of <0.05 are depicted in the table

VariableMultivariable model including global LD*Multivariable analysis including lateral LD*Multivariable analysis including posterior LD*Multivariable analysis including inferior LD*Multivariable analysis including septal LD*
HR95% CIP valueHR95% CIP valueHR95% CIP valueHR95% CIP valueHR95% CIP value
Age (per 1 year increase)1.031.01 to 1.060.0031.041.01 to 1.060.0011.041.01 to 1.060.0011.031.01 to 1.050.0091.031.01 to 1.060.003
Diabetes2.761.73 to 4.39<0.0012.761.73 to 4.39<0.0012.721.71 to 4.32<0.0012.681.68 to 4.27<0.0012.771.74 to 4.41<0.001
MAP (mm Hg)0.970.96 to 0.99<0.0010.970.96 to 0.99<0.0010.970.96 to 0.99<0.0010.970.96 to 0.99<0.0010.970.96 to 0.99<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)0.950.91 to 0.990.0260.950.91 to 0.990.0270.950.91 to 0.990.0260.950.91 to 0.990.0260.950.90 to 0.990.022
LD measure (per 1 mm decrease)1.191.05 to 1.340.0061.091.07 to 1.190.0351.091.00 to 1.180.0451.181.07 to 1.300.0011.121.01 to 1.250.028
  • *Multivariable model includes age, gender, ischaemic cardiomyopathy, BMI, diabetes, MAP, AF, PM, heart rate, LVIDd, LVEF, LVMI, LAVI, E/e’, TAPSE and DT.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; BMI, body mass index; DT, deceleration time; e', average peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity; E, peak transmitral early diastolic inflow velocity; LAVI, left atrial volume index; LD, longitudinal displacement; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVIDd, left ventricular internal dimension in diastole; LVMI, left ventricular mass index; MAP, mean arterial pressure; PM, pacemaker; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.