Table 1

Clinical and echocardiographic parameters stratified by tertiles of global LD

Total1. tertile2. tertile3. tertileP for trend across tertiles
Global LD (mm)6.5±2.53.8±1.06.4±0.79.2±1.4
n=907n=303n=302n=302
Event rate (per 100 patient-years, 95% CI)9.2 (7.5 to 11.2)3.5 (2.5 to 4.8)1.9 (1.2 to 2.9)
Clinical characteristic and comorbidities
Age (years)66.7±7.568.5±10.267.3±11.164.3±12.7<0.001
Male663 (73.1%)226 (74.6%)214 (70.9%)223 (73.8%)0.84
Heart rate (beats/min)73.6±15.579.7±16.972.3±14.968.7±12.3<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)26.5±4.925.8±4.626.8±5.526.9±4.20.005
MAP (mm Hg)92.9±13.490.1±13.892.9±13.495.7±12.6<0.001
AF140 (15.4%)70 (23.1%)47 (15.6%)23 (7.6%)<0.001
Diabetes114 (12.6%)39 (12.9%)36 (11.9%)39 (12.9%)0.99
Ischaemic origin536 (59.1%)172 (56.8%)171 (56.6%)193 (63.9%)0.07
History of MI439 (48.4%)146 (48.2%)140 (46.4%)153 (50.7%)0.54
PTCA261 (28.8%)62 (20.5%)83 (27.5%)116 (38.4%)<0.001
CABG203 (22.4%)69 (22.8%)72 (23.8%)62 (20.5%)0.51
PM50 (5.5%)27 (8.9%)16 (5.3%)7 (2.3%)0.001
ICD25 (2.8%)11 (3.6%)9 (3.0%)5 (1.7%)0.14
Cholesterol (mmol/L)4.4±1.14.4±1.14.5±1.14.4±1.20.73
Echocardiographic parameters
LVIDd (cm)5.6±1.06.1±1.05.6±0.95.3±0.9<0.001
LVPWd (cm)1.0±0.21.0±0.21.0±0.21.0±0.30.69
LVESV (mL)66±3185.3±35.960.8±24.751.3±19.3<0.001
LVEDV (mL)88±33104.5±38.682.9±27.377.2±24.1<0.001
LVEF (%)27±920.0±7.628.0±7.334.3±7.1<0.001
LVMI (g/m2)120±38134.6±41.5117.9±34.5107.8±33.2<0.001
LAVI (mL/m2)31±1436.0±14.430.6±12.527.2±13.1<0.001
TAPSE (cm)1.9±0.61.6±0.51.9±0.52.1±0.5<0.001
DT (ms)190±78160.8±68.9194.3±78.7212.9±76.2<0.001
E (m/s)0.8±0.30.9±0.30.8±0.30.8±0.3<0.001
e' (cm/s)6.9±2.56.2±2.36.5±2.47.9±2.6<0.001
E/e’13.1±6.015.5±6.913.4±5.510.6±4.2<0.001
GLS (%)−9.6±3.4−6.7±2.1−9.5±2.4−12.5±2.7<0.001
GCS (%)−10.3±4.2−8.6±3.9−10.2±3.4−12.3±4.3<0.001
Global SR (s−1)−0.5±0.2−0.4±0.1−0.5±0.1−0.7±0.2<0.001
S’ (cm/s)3.9±1.42.7±0.93.9±0.85.1±1.1<0.001
Inferior LD (mm)7.0±3.04.1±1.86.9±1.510.1±2.0<0.001
Lateral LD (mm)7.2±3.04.3±1.67.2±1.710.2±2.2<0.001
Septal LD (mm)6.0±2.83.3±1.55.9±1.58.8±2.0<0.001
Posterior LD (mm)7.3±3.14.3±1.67.2±1.710.4±2.3<0.001
Anterior septal LD (mm)4.8±2.42.8±1.44.7±1.76.9±2.1<0.001
Anterior LD (mm)6.4±2.84.0±1.66.3±1.79.0±2.2<0.001
  • AF, atrial fibrillation; BMI, body mass index; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; DT, deceleration time; e’, average peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity; E, peak transmitral early diastolic inflow velocity; GCS, global circumferential strain; GLS, global longitudinal strain; ICD, implantable cardioverter defibrillator; LAVI, left atrial volume index; LD, longitudinal displacement; LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume; LVIDd, left ventricular internal dimension in diastole; LVMI, left ventricular mass index; LVPWd, left ventricular posterior wall diameter at diastole; MAP, mean arterial pressure; MI, myocardial infarction; PM, pacemaker; PTCA, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; SR, strain rate; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.