Table 3

Summary of findings and GRADE assessment results

OutcomeNo of studiesRisk of biasInconsistencyIndirectnessImprecisionPublication biasTotal number of patientsEffect size*
(95% CI)
Quality of evidence
30-Day mortality5LowLowLowHigh†Low15281.00 (0.55 to 1.81)Very low
One-year mortality4LowLowLowLowLow2111.93 (1.16 to 3.22)Low
Stroke6LowLowLowHigh†Low15881.08 (0.40 to 2.87)Very low
Paravalvular leakage5LowLowLowLowLow153714.89 (6.89 to 32.16)Moderate‡
Kidney injury4LowLowLowLowLow14280.38 (0.21 to 0.69)Moderate‡
AF5LowHigh§LowHigh†Low15140.37 (0.10 to 1.32)Very low
Major bleeding4LowLowLowHigh†Low7161.24 (0.46 to 3.35)Very low
Hospitalisation duration6LowHigh§LowLowLow15881.92 (0.61 to 3.24)Very low
  • *All effect sizes, with the exception of hospitalisation durations (presented as mean differences), are presented as relative risk ratios.

  • †Crosses threshold of no difference.

  • ‡Upgraded due to large effect size.

  • §High I2 and non-overlapping confidence intervals.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; GRADE, Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation.