Table 1

Baseline characteristics at index date

VariableAF before HF (n=9904)HF before AF (n=3852)Total cohort (n=13 756)P value
Age, median (IQR)66.9 (61–71)66.9 (61–71)66.9 (61–71)0.7132
Men, n (%)7320 (73.9)2885 (74.9)10 205 (74.2)0.2438
COPD, n (%)1474 (14.9)831 (21.6)2305 (16.8)<0.001
CKD, n (%)554 (5.6)391 (10.2)945 (6.9)<0.001
IHD, n (%)3031 (30.6)2034 (52.8)5065 (36.8)<0.001
DM, n (%)1885 (19.0)1057 (27.4)2942 (21.4)<0.001
HT, n (%)9553 (96.5)3775 (98.0)13 328 (96.9)<0.001
Outpatients2654 (26.8)1285 (33.4)3939 (28.6)<0.001
Thiazides, n (%)1640 (16.6)561 (14.6)2201 (16.0)0.005
Spironolactone, n (%)2627 (26.5)1456 (37.8)4083 (29.7)<0.001
Loop, n (%)6918 (69.9)2739 (71.1)9557 (70.2)0.154
Beta-blocker, n (%)8367 (84.5)3193 (82.9)11 560 (84.0)0.024
Calcium channel blocker, n (%)2604 (26.3)863 (22.4)3467 (25.2)<0.001
RAS inhibitor, n (%)7724 (78.0)3165 (82.2)10 889 (79.2)<0.001
Verapamil, n (%)784 (7.9)145 (3.8)929 (6.8%)<0.001
Amiodarone, n (%)1625 (16.4)643 (16.7)2268 (16.5)0.682
Digoxin, n (%)5091 (51.4)1569 (40.7)6660 (48.4)<0.001
Dabigatran, n (%)1124 (11.3)367 (9.5)1491 (10.8)0.002
Rivaroxaban, n (%)651 (6.6)255 (6.6)906 (6.6)0.951
Apixaban, n (%)750 (7.6)347 (9.0)1097 (8.0)0.006
Warfarin, n (%)7550 (76.2)2935 (76.2)10 485 (76.2)0.981
Marcumar, n (%)124 (1.3)48 (1.2)172 (1.3)1.000
ICD, n (%)339 (3.4)526 (13.7)865 (6.3)<0.001
PCI, n (%)940 (9.5)783 (20.3)1723 (12.5)<0.001
CABG, n (%)631 (6.4)584 (15.2)1215 (8.8)<0.001
CHA2DS2-VASc (IQR)3 (2–4)3 (2–4)3 (2–4)<0.001
  • The distribution of the predictor variables at the index date.

  • CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; HT, hypertension; ICD, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.